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Glossary

  • Page ID
    167253
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    Glossary Entries

    Word(s)

    Definition

    Image Caption Link Source
    Ableism Discrimination on the basis of physical, mental, or emotional impairment or blocked access to the fulfillment of needs and in particular, full participation in social life.        
    Abortion The termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of the fetus        
    Abruption Premature separation of the placenta from the wall of the womb        
    Affirmative consent A knowing, voluntary, and mutual decision among all participants to engage in sexual activity.  Consent can be given by words or actions, as long as those words or actions create clear permission regarding willingness to engage in the sexual activity. Silence or lack of resistance, in and of itself, does not demonstrate consent. The definition of consent does not vary based upon a participant's sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression (SUNY, n.d.).        
    Agender a person who has an internal sense of being neither male nor female nor some combination of male and female        
    Allosexual  This term describes anyone who experiences any sort of sexual attraction. People who identify as Allosexual can be gay, pansexual, lesbian or any other sexual orientation because allosexuality is not connected to gender. Allosexuality opposes asexuality.        
    Alveoli (of the breast) milk-secreting cells in the mammary gland        
    American Association of Sexuality Educators Counselors & Therapists (AASECT) a professional organization devoted to the promotion of sexual health. AASECT provides training and certification for sex therapists, counselors and educators.        
    Amnion An embryonic membrane that encircles a developing fetus and contains amniotic fluid.        
    Amniocentesis A procedure in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is removed from around the fetus        
    Amniotic fluid The fluid surrounding the fetus        
    Amniotomy (artificial rupture of membranes, ARM) Breaking the membranes using a special plastic hook        
    Ampulla (of the uterine tube) middle portion of the uterine tube in which fertilization often occurs        
    Andropause or late-onset hypogonadism Significant decline of testosterone levels        
    Androsexual  Androsexual is a term that describes people who are attracted to people who present themselves as masculine. This type of orientation has little to do with biology and more to do with the presentation of gender.        
    Anemia Lack of hemoglobin in red blood cells, due to iron deficiency or disease        
    Antepartum Hemorrhage (APH) Vaginal bleeding that happens after 24 weeks of pregnancy and before delivery        
    Antrum fluid-filled chamber that characterizes a mature tertiary (antral) follicle        
    APA Ethics Code “Lack of awareness or misunderstanding of an ethical standard is not itself a defense to a charge of unethical ethical responsibilities” (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 2017)        
    Areola highly pigmented, circular area surrounding the raised nipple and containing areolar glands that secrete fluid important for lubrication during suckling        
    Arranged marriage a marriage planned and agreed upon by the families of the couple to be married        
    Asexual  Asexual is a term that describes people who do not experience sexual attraction toward other people. People who identify as asexual are often able to feel romantic attraction towards people.        
    At-risk Research Poses greater than minimal risk and must be reviewed by the entire IRB        
    Auto Eroticism self-pleasuring using one's mind or touching, stroking or rubbing one's genitals for orgasm (also known as masturbation)        
    Autosexual  Autosexual is a term that describes an individual’s sexual attraction to oneself.        
    Bacterial STIs are chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis- less common ones are chancroid and mycoplasma genitalium        
    Bartholin’s glands (also, greater vestibular glands) glands that produce a thick mucus that maintains moisture in the vulva area; also referred to as the greater vestibular glands        
    BDSM an umbrella term that refers to a variety of erotic practices that may involve bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, sadism and masochism        
    Bi-Curious Bi-curious is a term that refers to people who are looking to explore bisexuality.        
    Bias  Prejudice for or against one thing, person or group compared to another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.        
    Bigender a person whose gender identity is a combination of male and female or is sometimes male and sometimes female        
    Biological determinism can be defined as a general theory, which holds that a group’s biological or genetic makeup shapes its social, political, and economic destiny.        
    Biopsychosocial Approach to Human Sexuality systematically considers biological, psychological, and social factors and their complex interactions        
    Birth Control/Contraception is a technique that prevents a sperm cell and an ovum from uniting. There are various types of birth control options including, barrier, surgical, and hormonal methods        
    Bisexual  Bisexuality can often overlap with pansexuality, however; the term describes a person who may be romantically, sexually, or emotionally attracted to more than one gender.        
    Blood–testis barrier tight junctions between Sertoli cells that prevent bloodborne pathogens from gaining access to later stages of spermatogenesis and prevent the potential for an autoimmune reaction to haploid sperm        
    Body of uterus middle section of the uterus        
    Breech The baby is lying bottom down in the womb        
    Broad ligament wide ligament that supports the uterus by attaching laterally to both sides of the uterus and pelvic wall        
    Bulbourethral glands (also, Cowper’s glands) glands that secrete a lubricating mucus that cleans and lubricates the urethra prior to and during ejaculation        
    Burlesque a variety show, typically including striptease.        
    Camming the internet streaming of adult content” (Dictionary, 2022)        
    Celiac sprue Nutrient absorption impairment which is improved when gluten is removed from the diet. Characteristic mucosal lesion of the small intestine.        
    Cephalic The baby is lying head down in the womb        
    Cervix  elongate inferior end of the uterus where it connects to the vagina        
    Cisgender a person whose gender identity corresponds with the sex the person had or was identified as having at birth        
    Child molestation A crime of any sexual act with a minor.        
    Chorion The embryonic membrane that forms the outermost covering around the developing fetus.        
    Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) A method for sampling placental tissue for genetic or chromosome studies.        
    Cilia The fine hairs that line the fallopian tubes        
    Classism  Discrimination on the basis of social class, or blocked access to material wealth and social status.        
    Cleavage The early successive divisions of embryonic cells into smaller and smaller cells.        
    Clitoris  (also, glans clitoris) nerve-rich area of the vulva that contributes to sexual sensation during intercourse        
    Closeted  or “in the closet” refers to anyone who exists within the LGBTQIA+ community but does not publicly disclose the truth. Many people who identify as closeted seek to avoid persecution or discrimination based on their sexual identity.        
    Cohabitation  is when a couple are living together in a sexual relationship when the partners are not legally married        
    Colostrum the fluid that is made late in pregnancy and the first few days postpartum in the breast that contains immunologic substances and essential nutrients.        
    Commitment feelings and actions that keep partners working together to maintain the relationship.        
    Common-law marriage if a couple lives together for a certain number of years, they are automatically considered as married in the eyes of the law.        
    Communal relationships close relationships in which partners suspend their need for equity and exchange, giving support to the partner in order to meet this partner needs, and without consideration of the costs to themselves.        
    Complementary relationships each person in the relationship brings different personality attributes to the relationship which can help satisfy the other person’s needs        
    Conflict Theory looks at society as a competition for limited resources between those who have (bourgeoisie), and those who do not (proletariat)        
    Consensual non-monogamy an explicit agreement between partners that they accept sexual or romantic pursuit outside of their primary relationship.        
    Copulation (Coitus, sexual intercourse) is the procreative act of a man's erect penis is inserted into a woman's vagina. At climax, semen is ejaculated from the penis at the cervix of the uterus. Sperm then propel themselves into the fallopian tubes where fertilization may occur if an ovum is present.        
    Cordocentesis The procedure for taking blood from the fetal umbilical cord via a needle through the mother’s abdomen        
    Corpus albicans nonfunctional structure remaining in the ovarian stroma following structural and functional regression of the corpus luteum        
    Corpus cavernosum either of two columns of erectile tissue in the penis that fill with blood during an erection        
    Corpus luteum transformed follicle after ovulation that secretes progesterone        
    Corpus spongiosum (plural = corpora cavernosa) column of erectile tissue in the penis that fills with blood during an erection and surrounds the penile urethra on the ventral portion of the penis        
    Crohn's disease Skip lesions in the colon and is a malabsorptive disease.        
    Cunnilingus  oral stimulation of the female genitals        
    Cystitis Infection of the bladder        
    Demisexual  Similar to asexuality, those who identify as demisexual often feel sexual attraction to people they’ve established a romantic or emotional relationship with.        
    Differentiated Sex Development a range of variations that can occur when a person does not have the specific anatomy or chromosomal markers that would typically assign them either male or female        
    Dizygous Not identical (fraternal) twins        
    Domestic Partnership a legal relationship between couples that allows them to obtain many of the same benefits as a marriage.        
    Doppler A form of ultrasound used specially to investigate blood flow in the placenta or in the fetus        
    Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) A disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21 in the cells        
    Double standard a rule or principle that is unfairly applied in different ways to different people or groups. For example, concept that prohibits premarital sexual intercourse for women but allows it for men        
    Drug holidays plan sexual activity around times when the effect of the medication is at its lowest        
    Ductus deferens (also, vas deferens) duct that transports sperm from the epididymis through the spermatic cord and into the ejaculatory duct; also referred as the vas deferens        
    Ectopic Pregnancy A pregnancy that develops outside of the womb        
    Edema Swelling of the fingers, legs, toes, and face.        
    Ejaculatory duct duct that connects the ampulla of the ductus deferens with the duct of the seminal vesicle at the prostatic urethra        
    Embryo The medical term for the baby from conception to about six weeks        
    Endometrium  inner lining of the uterus, part of which builds up during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle and then sheds with menses        
    Engagement The process in which the head of the baby moves down from high in the mother's abdomen and settles deeper into her pelvis in preparation for birth. This can happen any time between 36 weeks and labor.        
    Epididymis  (plural = epididymides) coiled tubular structure in which sperm start to mature and are stored until ejaculation        
    Epidural Anesthesia A method of numbing the nerves of the lower spinal cord to ensure a pain-free labor        
    Episiotomy A cut of the perineum and vagina performed to make the delivery easier        
    Erectile dysfunction challenges with obtaining and/or maintaining penile erection.        
    Ethics moral principles that govern a person's behavior or the conducting of an activity        
    Evolutionary theory our behavior reflects evolved adaptations for the survival of our ancestors.        
    Exchange relationships relationships in which each of the partners keeps track of his or her contributions to the partnership        
    Excitement Phase the arousal phase of the sexual response cycle, and it is marked by erection of the penis or clitoris and lubrication and expansion of the vaginal canal        
    Exempt Research Research on the effectiveness of normal educational activities, the use of standard psychological measures and surveys of a nonsensitive nature that are administered in a way that maintains confidentiality, and research using existing data from public sources        
    Expedited partner treatment a medical provider can prescribe partner packs of antibiotics to a patient to give to their partner(s) as needed        
    External Fetal Monitor An electronic monitor used to record the fetal heartbeat and mother’s contractions        
    Fallopian tubes (also, uterine tubes or oviducts) ducts that facilitate transport of an ovulated oocyte to the uterus        
    Fallopian Tubes (uterine tubes) Two tubular structures (one on each side of the womb) leading from the ovaries to the uterus        
    Fellatio  Oral stimulation of the male genitals        
    Feminism  is not a single school of thought, but rather, encompasses diverse theories and analytical perspectives—such as socialist feminist theories, radical sex feminist theories, black feminist theories, queer feminist theories, transfeminist theories, feminist disability theories, and intersectional feminist theories.        
    Fertilization The union of an egg cell and a sperm cell is present wherein 23 chromosomes from each parent come together to form a zygote. After sperm penetrates, the ovum undergoes a chemical change to prevent other sperm from entering. Multiple births can occur from complete division of the conceptus during early cleavage or from fertilization of multiple ova. Birth control techniques are designed to prevent ovulation or to prevent fertilization by barriers that keep sperm and ova separated.        
    Fetus Medical term for the baby from six weeks after conception until birth        
    Fight Online Sex Trafficking Act (FOSTA) adds penalties for hosting illegal sex work-related content        
    Fimbriae  fingerlike projections on the distal uterine tubes        
    Fluid  A person who identifies as fluid experiences a shift in sexual identity over time rather than someone how experiences a singular sexual orientation.        
    Follicle  ovarian structure of one oocyte and surrounding granulosa (and later theca) cells        
    Folliculogenesis  development of ovarian follicles from primordial to tertiary under the stimulation of gonadotropins        
    Forceps Metal instruments that fit on either side of the baby's head and are used to help deliver the baby        
    Foreplay  means a pre-coital partnered sexual activity        
    Friends with Benefits Hookups different from the relationships that involve continued mutual exchange        
    Functional distance or the frequency with which we cross paths with others        
    Fundus  (of the uterus) domed portion of the uterus that is superior to the uterine tubes        
    Fundus The top of the womb        
    Gamete  haploid reproductive cell that contributes genetic material to form an offspring        
    Gay  The word gay is used to describe someone who is sexually or romantically attracted to a member of the same gender.        
    Gender  is a term that refers to social or cultural distinctions associated with a given sex        
    Gender Binary The word “binary” comes from a Latin word meaning "consisting of two.” When we refer to “gender binary” we are referring to the two common categories for gender, man and woman. Most of our world separates men and women using cultural stereotypes - from what we wear, how we smell, and the roles we are expected to play in the workplace and the home.        
    Gender Expression Refers to the aspects of a person's behavior, mannerisms, interests, and appearance that are associated with gender in a particular cultural context, specifically with the categories of femininity or masculinity.        
    Gender Identity a person’s sense of self as a member of a particular gender.        
    Gender Spectrum If we imagine gender is a spectrum with male and female at either end, some people feel like they fit a different category than the gender they were given at birth, and move from one side to the other, and some people feel they are a mix and somewhere in between the ends of the spectrum.        
    Genderqueer a person whose gender identity cannot be categorized as solely male or female        
    Gender Neutral not referring to either sex but only to people in general        
    Germ layer Layers of cells within an embryo that form the body organs during development.        
    Glans penis bulbous end of the penis that contains a large number of nerve endings        
    Glial Cells (neuroglia; glia) Non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glia are estimated to outnumber neurons by about 10 to 1. Glial cells provide support and protection for neurons, the other main type of cell in the central nervous system. They are thus known as the "glue" of the nervous system. The four main functions of glial cells are to surround neurons and hold them in place, to supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons, to insulate one neuron from another, and to destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons.        
    Gonads  reproductive organs (testes in men and ovaries in women) that produce gametes and reproductive hormones        
    Granulosa cells supportive cells in the ovarian follicle that produce estrogen        
    Greysexual  People who identify as greysexual experience limited sexual attraction, meaning that sexual attraction is rare.        
    Gynesexual  This term refers to people who are attracted to individuals with more feminine gender presentations rather than androsexual identifying people who are attracted to more masculine presenting people        
    Hedonism  the pursuit of pleasure or sensual self-indulgence        
    Hemoglobin (Hb)The oxygen carrying constituent of red blood cells        
    Heteronormativity the ways in which heterosexuality is normalized through myriad practices, so that it becomes naturalized as the only legitimate form of sexuality.        
    Heteronormativity  The everyday, taken-for-granted ways in which heterosexuality is privileged and normalized.        
    Heterosexual or Straight These two terms refer to people who are only romantically, sexually, or emotionally attracted to people of the opposite sex (ie men who are attracted to exclusively women and women who are exclusively attracted to men).        
    Heteroflexible or homoflexible heteroflexible person is mostly heterosexual (someone who is attracted to the same gender) but can occasionally be attracted to the same gender or other genders. Alternatively, a  Homoflexible person is mostly attracted to people of the same gender, but is sometimes attracted to other genders.        
    Homophobia the fear, hatred, or prejudice against gay people.        
    Homosexual  The term homosexual is a slightly outdated term, however; it refers to to anyone who is attracted to people of the same (or similar) gender.        
    Hookups Uncommitted sexual encounters        
    Hot Flash A surge of adrenaline associated with menopause        
    Human trafficking The acquisition of persons by improper means such as force, fraud or deception, with the aim of exploiting them.        
    Hymen  membrane that covers part of the opening of the vagina        
    Implicit bias attitudes towards people or groups of people or associate stereotypes with them without our conscious knowledge.        
    In utero death (IUD)the death of the unborn fetus after 24 weeks        
    In vitro fertilization (IVF) a method of assisted conception in which fertilization occurs outside the mother's and the embryo is replaced in the womb        
    Incest Sexual relations between people classed as family members or close relatives.        
    Induction of labor (IOL) the procedure for initiating labor artificially        
    Informed consent process of communication between you and your health care provider that often leads to agreement or permission for care, treatment, or services        
    Infundibulum  (of the uterine tube) wide, distal portion of the uterine tube terminating in fimbriae        
    Inguinal canal opening in abdominal wall that connects the testes to the abdominal cavity        
    Interoception  is the perception humans have of sensations inside the body        
    Interpersonal attraction the strength of our liking or loving for another person        
    Intersectionality  Seeing systems of oppression working in concert, rather than separately and independently. Also, the complex, cumulative way in which the multiple forms of discrimination (e.g. racism, sexism, classism) combine, overlap or intersect the experiences of marginalized individuals or groups.        
    Intersex  an umbrella term that describes bodies that fall outside the strict male/female binary        
    Intersex those with a variation in sex characteristics, including chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that do not allow an individual to be distinctly identified as male or female        
    Intimate partner violence  is often divided into situational couple violencewhich is the violence that results when heated conflict escalates, and intimate terrorismin which one partner consistently uses fear and violence to dominate the other        
    Isthmus  narrow, medial portion of the uterine tube that joins the uterus        
    Kink consensual, non-traditional sexual, sensual, and intimate behaviors such as sadomasochism, domination and submission, erotic roleplaying, fetishism, and erotic forms of discipline        
    Labia majora hair-covered folds of skin located behind the mons pubis        
    Labia minora thin, pigmented, hairless flaps of skin located medial and deep to the labia majora        
    Lactiferous ducts ducts that connect the mammary glands to the nipple and allow for the transport of milk        
    Lactiferous sinus area of milk collection between alveoli and lactiferous duct        
    Lanugo fine hair that covers the fetus in the womb        
    Lesbian  lesbian is a term that describes a female identifying person who is attracted to other women.        
    Leydig cells cells between the seminiferous tubules of the testes that produce testosterone; a type of interstitial cell        
    Libido our desire for sex        
    Lochia blood loss after birth        
    mammary glands glands inside the breast that secrete milk        
    Marriage  the legally or formally recognized union of two people as partners in a personal relationship        
    Mastitis inflammation of the breast most frequently in lactation.        
    Masturbation  self-pleasuring using one's mind or touching, stroking or rubbing one's genitals for orgasm (also known as Auto Eroticism)        
    Masturbation also known as auto eroticism, is often when a person touches, strokes or rubs their own genitals or fantasizes for sexual pleasure        
    Menarche  first menstruation in a pubertal female        
    Menarche The first menstrual period        
    Menopause The end of the menstrual cycle typically diagnosed after 12 months without menstruation        
    Menses  shedding of the inner portion of the endometrium out though the vagina; also referred to as menstruation        
    Menses phase phase of the menstrual cycle in which the endometrial lining is shed        
    Menstrual cycle approximately 28-day cycle of changes in the uterus consisting of a menses phase, a proliferative phase, and a secretory phase        
    Mere-exposure effect the more often we are exposed to a stimulus (e.g., sound, person) the more likely we are to view that stimulus positively        
    Minimal Risk Research exposes participants to risks that are no greater than those encountered by healthy people in daily life or during routine physical or psychological examination        
    Modularity hypothesis explains homosexuality as different from heterosexuality only with respect to the sex of the desired partner, and suggests that homosexual and heterosexual individuals show similar patterns regarding other aspects of sexual psychology.        
    Monogamous  having a sexual relationship with only one partner at a time        
    Mons pubis mound of fatty tissue located at the front of the vulva        
    Myometrium  smooth muscle layer of uterus that allows for uterine contractions during labor and expulsion of menstrual blood        
    Neonatal baby less than 28 days old        
    Non-binary Some people don’t feel like they fit on the spectrum at all, and reject those terms altogether. Some people refer to their gender as “non-binary” to describe when their gender falls outside the gender binary system. These people can sometimes use gender-neutral pronouns such as “they” instead of “him” or “her”.        
    Nuchal scan special ultrasound scan that gives an estimate of the risk of Down syndrome        
    Oocyte  cell that results from the division of the oogonium and undergoes meiosis I at the LH surge and meiosis II at fertilization to become a haploid ovum        
    Oocyte one ovum that is released from the ovary at each ovulation        
    Oogenesis  process by which oogonia divide by mitosis to primary oocytes, which undergo meiosis to produce the secondary oocyte and, upon fertilization, the ovum        
    Oogonia  ovarian stem cells that undergo mitosis during female fetal development to form primary oocytes        
    Orgasm Phase a climax of sexual excitement, characterized by feelings of pleasure centered in the sex organs.        
    Ovarian cycle approximately 28-day cycle of changes in the ovary consisting of a follicular phase and a luteal phase        
    Ovaries  female gonads that produce oocytes and sex steroid hormones (notably estrogen and progesterone)        
    Ovulation  release of a secondary oocyte and associated granulosa cells from an ovary        
    Ovum  haploid female gamete resulting from completion of meiosis II at fertilizatio        
    Pansexual  This term refers to people who are attracted to someone regardless of their gender identity.        
    Parasitic STIs include trichomoniasis, pubic lice, and scabies. They are all curable with antibiotics and other medications        
    Penis  male organ of copulation        
    Perimetrium  outer epithelial layer of uterine wall        
    Placenta The structure by which an unborn child is attached to its mother's uterine wall and through which it is nourished.        
    Plan B Emergency contraception that can be used after sex to prevent pregnancy        
    Plateau Phase swelling of the vagina and increased blood flow to the labia minora, and full erection of the penis and possible excretion of  pre-ejaculatory fluid        
    Pleasure  a feeling of happy satisfaction and enjoyment        
    Polar body smaller cell produced during the process of meiosis in oogenesis        
    Polyamory  People who love multiple people simultaneously        
    Polygamy  The practice of having more than one spouse at a time.        
    Pornography the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the purpose of arousal        
    Postnatal After birth        
    Premature ejaculation There are a variety of definitions. The consensus is that ejaculation is premature if it is sooner than desired.        
    Prenatal Before birth        
    Prepuce (also, foreskin) flap of skin that forms a collar around, and thus protects and lubricates, the glans penis; also referred as the foreskin        
    Primary follicles ovarian follicles with a primary oocyte and one layer of cuboidal granulosa cells        
    Primary sexual characteristics Reproductive organs present at birth compromising the external and internal genitalia        
    Primordial follicles least developed ovarian follicles that consist of a single oocyte and a single layer of flat (squamous) granulosa cells        
    Professional Dominatrix paid professional who takes the dominant role in BDSM/kink activities, sometimes referred to as a pro-domme.        
    Proliferative phase phase of the menstrual cycle in which the endometrium proliferates        
    Prostate gland doughnut-shaped gland at the base of the bladder surrounding the urethra and contributing fluid to semen during ejaculation        
    Prostate gland A gland located below the bladder that produces the fluid that nourishes and helps to transport sperm.        
    Puberty  life stage during which a male or female adolescent becomes anatomically and physiologically capable of reproduction        
    Pubic hair the hair that appears on the lower part of the hypogastric region at puberty        
    Queer  Queer is an umbrella term that describes anyone within the LGBTQIA+ community. The dictionary defines the word as something that is “strange”, however; the term has been redefined and reclaimed.        
    queer theory a scholarly discipline that questions fixed (normative) definitions of gender and sexuality. Queer theory problematizes the manner in which we have been taught to think about sexual orientation. By calling their discipline “queer,” these scholars are rejecting the effects of labeling; instead, they embrace the word “queer” and have reclaimed it for their own purposes.        
    Questioning  This term refers to someone who is questioning their sexual preference or to describe someone who is curious about exploring their sexuality.        
    Quickening The process that occurs between the seventeenth and twentieth weeks of fetal development, the fetus's leg bones achieve their final relative proportions. In this process the muscles contract, causing movement at the fetus's synovial joints. The joint movement enhances the nutrition of the articular cartilage and prevents the fusion of connective tissues within the joint. It also promotes bone hardening. It is this stage, where the fetus's bones become more developed and harder, that the mother begins to notice fetal movement.        
    Rape A form of sexual assault, that can be defined as, sexual penetration without consent (Sexual Assault, n.d.).        
    Relationship inauthenticity refers to an incongruence between thoughts/feelings and actions within a relationship        
    Reproductive coercion “Pressuring someone to have sex or messing with their birth control to cause a pregnancy” (What is sexual and reproductive control, n.d.).        
    Researcher Bias ideas, values, or opinions held by researchers based on their cultural or social status that may skew some data        
    Resolution Phase also known as the refractory period is a period of time that follows an orgasm during which an individual is incapable of experiencing another orgasm        
    Rudimentary Basic; minimal; with less than, or only the minimum, necessary        
    Rugae  (of the vagina) folds of skin in the vagina that allow it to stretch during intercourse and childbirth        
    Sapiosexual  Someone who identifies as sapiosexual is attracted to someone based on their intellect rather than the gender or sex of the other person.        
    Scientific Method A scientific process of research establishes parameters that help make sure results are objective and accurate        
    Scrotum external pouch of skin and muscle that houses the testes        
    Secondary sexual characteristics Physical characteristic developing at puberty which distinguishes between the sexes but is not directly involved in reproduction        
    Secondary follicles ovarian follicles with a primary oocyte and multiple layers of granulosa cells        
    Secondary sex characteristics physical characteristics that are influenced by sex steroid hormones and have supporting roles in reproductive function        
    Secretory phase phase of the menstrual cycle in which the endometrium secretes a nutrient-rich fluid in preparation for implantation of an embryo        
    Self-disclosure the tendency to communicate frequently, without fear of reprisal, and in an accepting and empathetic manner        
    Semen  ejaculatory fluid composed of sperm and secretions from the seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands        
    Seminal vesicle gland that produces seminal fluid, which contributes to semen        
    Seminiferous tubules tube structures within the testes where spermatogenesis occurs        
    Sensuality  the notion of being highly tuned into your senses        
    Sertoli cells cells that support germ cells through the process of spermatogenesis; a type of sustentacular cell        
    Sex Education high quality teaching and learning about a broad variety of topics related to sex and sexuality.        
    Sex therapist therapist who specializes in sexuality.        
    Sexological Bodywork body-based educational modality that supports individuals, couples, and groups to learn to direct their erotic development and to deepen their erotic wellbeing and embodiment” (Association of Certified Sexological Bodyworkers, 2022)        
    Sexual coercion ‘“The act of using pressure, alcohol or drugs, or force to have sexual contact with someone against his or her will” and includes “persistent attempts to have sexual contact with someone who has already refused”’ (What is Sexual Coercion, n.d.).        
    Sexual debut First sexual intercourse        
    Sexual fantasy is any mental picture or thoughts that come to mind while you are awake that generate sexual arousal        
    Sexual fluidity  one or more changes in a person’s sexuality or sexual identity.        
    Sexual harassment Defined by federal guidelines and legal rulings and statutes, consists of unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or physical conduct of a sexual nature used as a condition of employment or promotion or that interferes with an individual’s job performance and creates an intimidating or hostile environment.        
    Sexual health fundamental to the overall health and well-being of individuals, couples and families, and to the social and economic development of communities and countries        
    Sexual Literacy knowledge of sexual health and well-being        
    Sexual violence (SV) Any sexual contact or behavior occurring without the explicit consent of the victim (Sexual Assault, n.d.). In other words, any unwanted sexual contact.        
    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) If you have sex — oral, anal or vaginal intercourse and skin to skin contact — you can get an STD , also called a sexually transmitted infection (STI)        
    sexuality a person’s capacity for sexual feelings        
    Similarity thesis we are attracted to and tend to form relationships with others who are similar to us.        
    Social Constructionism is a theory of knowledge that holds that characteristics typically thought to be immutable and solely biological—such as gender, race, class, ability, and sexuality—are products of human definition and interpretation shaped by cultural and historical contexts.        
    Sociocultural Perspective acknowledges that evolution plays some role in sex differences in attraction; however, the sex differences may be more to do with social and cultural factors.        
    Sperm (also, spermatozoon) male gamete        
    Spermarche First ejaculation of semen        
    spermatic cord bundle of nerves and blood vessels that supplies the testes; contains ductus deferens        
    Spermatid  immature sperm cells produced by meiosis II of secondary spermatocytes        
    Spermatocyte  cell that results from the division of spermatogonium and undergoes meiosis I and meiosis II to form spermatids        
    Spermatogenesis  formation of new sperm, occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes        
    Spermatogonia  (singular = spermatogonium) diploid precursor cells that become sperm        
    Spermiogenesis  transformation of spermatids to spermatozoa during spermatogenesis        
    Statutory rape Any sexual relations with someone under the age of consent.        
    Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act (SESTA) The Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act and Allow States and Victims to Fight Online Sex Trafficking Act are the U.S. Senate and House bills that as the FOSTA-SESTA package became law on April 11, 2018        
    Street-based sex-work a form of sex work in which a sex worker solicits customers from a public place, most commonly a street, while waiting at street corners or walking alongside a street, but also other public places such as parks, benches, etc.        
    Structural Functionalism  sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of the individuals in that society.        
    Sunk cost bias When we choose to stay in situations largely because we feel we have put too much effort in to be able to leave them behind.        
    Surrogate Partner Therapy (SPT) is based on the work of sex researchers Masters and Johnson and uses their technique of sensate focus (touching for one’s own pleasure) as a basis for exploring physical intimacy        
    Survey Method The collection of information from a sample of individuals through their responses to questions        
    Suspensory ligaments bands of connective tissue that suspend the breast onto the chest wall by attachment to the overlying dermis        
    Symbolic Interactionism explores how we make meaning out of our interactions with one another in everyday life and how the specific roles we play affect these interactions.        
    Testes  (singular = testis) male gonads        
    Tertiary follicles (also, antral follicles) ovarian follicles with a primary or secondary oocyte, multiple layers of granulosa cells, and a fully formed antrum        
    Theca cells estrogen-producing cells in a maturing ovarian follicle        
    Thrush Creamy white flakes on a red papillae on tongue and tongue may be enlarged.        
    Transgender a person whose gender identity differs from the sex the person had or was identified as having at birth        
    Two-Spirit an umbrella term used by some Indigenous North Americans to describe Native people in their communities who fulfill a traditional third-gender (or other gender-variant) ceremonial and social role in their cultures.        
    Umbilical cord The cord-like structure that connects the fetus to the placenta.        
    Uterus  muscular hollow organ in which a fertilized egg develops into a fetus        
    Vagina  tunnel-like organ that provides access to the uterus for the insertion of semen and from the uterus for the birth of a baby        
    Vaginal dryness happens when estrogen levels drop and vaginal tissue thins and becomes more delicate.        
    Vasectomy a procedure in which a small section of the ductus (vas) deferens is removed from the scrotum        
    Viral STIs include HSV (herpes simplex virus), HPV (human papillomavirus) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which can lead to AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)        
    Volunteer Bias A bias people who volunteer for research have that differentiate them from those who don’t volunteer        
    Vulva  external female genitalia        
    Wolffian duct duct system present in the embryo that will eventually form the internal male reproductive structures        
    Zygote A cell produced by the fusion of an egg and a sperm; a fertilized egg cell        
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