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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    Absolute Advantage In economic terms, a country that is blessed with abundant natural resources or geographic advantages that are rare or in short supply and in high demand elsewhere.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Acculturation: Cultural change, generally the reconciliation of two or more culture groups.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Adult Literacy Rate The proportion of the adult population aged 15 years and over that is literate. This indicator provides a measure of the stock of literate persons within the adult population who are capable of using written words in daily life and to continue to learn.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Agnostic: The belief that existence of the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    agribusiness commercial agriculture engaged in the production, processing, and distribution of food       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Agricultural density: The number of farmers per unit area of arable land.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    agriculture a science, art, and business directed to modify some specific portions of the Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance and profit       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Annexation legally adding land area to a city       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Arithmetic density: The population of a country divided by its total land area.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Asian Dragons (Asian Tigers) The high-growth economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan: all of which focus on exports, an educated populace and high savings rates as pathways to development.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Asylum seeker those who leave the sovereign territory of one country in order to achieve refugee status in another, based upon claims of danger because of race, religion, nationality, or other pertinent identifiers.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Atheistic: The belief that there is nothing supernatural.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Back office services interoffice services involving personnel who do not interact directly with clients.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Bilingual: Being able to use two languages with varying degrees of fluency.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    biofuels fuel derived from biological materials       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Biofuels energy sources from living matter.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    biorevolution the genetic engineering of plant and animals with the potential to exceed the production of the Green Revolution       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    biotechnology the manipulation through genetic engineering of living organisms or their components to make or modify products or processes for specific use       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Blue Banana a discontinuous corridor of urbanization in Western Europe, from North West England to Northern Italy       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Boswash the United States megalopolis, extending from Boston to Washington D.C.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Boundary an invisible, vertical plane that separates one state from another, which includes both the airspace above the line on the surface and the ground below.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Brain drain the collective loss of skills, education, training, and wealth that occurs when highly-skilled and educated people move away from a country (usually away from a relatively poor country).       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Brain gain the collective gain of skills, education, training, and wealth that occurs when highly-skilled and educated people move into another country (usually to a relatively wealthier country).       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Brain waste a phenomenon in which international migrants with high levels of education and/or training often are not eligible to work in their area of training due to regulations or certification requirements, resulting in a “wasted” potential in certain groups.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Branches: A large division of a religion.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Break-of-bulk point point of transfer from one form of transport to another.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    BRICS Countries The countries of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa countries that collectively account for 40% of the world’s population and 25% of the world’s land. From 1990-2014 these countries share of the global economy rose from 11% to almost 30%. In recent years, economic growth in the BRICS has been slowed by corruption, crisis, and dropping commodity prices.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Bulk reducing industrial activity that produces a product that weighs less than the inputs.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Canonized doctrine: The officially recognized documents or ideas of a religion.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Capitalism The historically contingent economic system of trade in which parties are categorized into laborers and capitalists, both of whom seek to maximize their profit/wages. Within capitalism prices, production, and wages are determined by market conditions including, but not limited to supply and demand. Contemporary capitalism is intimately tied to the industrial revolution and ensuing societal transformations in England that diffused across Europe initially and then to many other parts of the world. Capitalism assumes that rational consumers seek to maximize their own utility.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Carrying capacity The maximum population size that the environment can sustain indefinitely.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Cartogram: map in which some thematic mapping variable—such as population—is substituted for land area or distance.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    central business district (CBD) the central nucleus of commercial land uses in a city       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Centrality the functional dominance of cities within an urban system       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Centrifugal force a force that tends to break a state apart.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Centripetal force a force that tends to bind a state together.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    City an urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self- government unit       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    City-state a sovereign state that consists of a city and its dependent territories       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Clustered rural settlement an agricultural based community in which a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Cohort: A subset of a population, generally defined by an age range.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Collectivism (Collective Societies) A socio-political-economic system that prioritizes the well-being of the group over the individual. Collectivist modes of development, for example tend to include progressive tax regimes, affordable access to healthcare and higher education for all, and protections for marginalized groups. In LDC’s this may also include communal ownership of land or other assets.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    commercial agriculture a system in which farmers produce crops and animals primarily for sale       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Commodification The process of transforming a cultural activity into a saleable product.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Commodification The process of transforming a cultural activity into a saleable product.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Compact state a state where the distance from the center to any border does not vary significantly; roughly circular.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Comparative Advantage The principle whereby individuals (or territories) produce those goods or services for which they have the greatest cost or efficiency advantage over others and the lowest opportunity cost. The outcome tends to be specialization across places.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Concentric zone model a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Conservation using natural resources in a sustainable way so that they are preserved for future generations.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Containerization transport system using standardized shipping containers.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    conventional farming agriculture that uses chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides) and/or hormone-based practices       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Creole: A blended language differentiated from a pidgin language by its more complex grammar and its status as a first language.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    crop rotation method in which the field under cultivation remain the same, but the crop is changed in order to avoid exhausting the soil       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Crude birth rate: Total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a year.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Crude death rate: Total number of deaths per 1,000 of a population in a year.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Cultural ecology Study of human adaptations to physical environments.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Cultural Landscape Landscapes produced by the interaction of physical and human inputs.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Cultural reproduction The process of inculcating cultural values into successive generations.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Cultural schemata: A system of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating and acting.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Cultural scripts: The “scripts” that guide social behavior and language use in everyday speaking situations.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Cultural tourism A variety of tourism concerned with exploring the culture of a place.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Culture Learned human behavior associated with groups.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Culture Hearth Historic location of cultural formation.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Dark Ages early medieval period, A.D. 476-1000       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Deindustrialization process of shifting from a manufacturing based economy to one based on other economic activities.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Demographic transition The transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Dependency ratio: The ratio of those not in the labor force (generally ages 0 to 14 and 65+) and those in the labor force.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Dependency Theory A theory of development positing that the global economic system disadvantages certain regions and countries. It is argued that prior colonial relationships created systems of trade that benefitted the colonizer much more than the colonized. Countries that were made producers of pineapple, sugar, rubber, and other products during colonial times continue to be dependent upon the production of very low-profit items, limiting opportunities to produce other more valuable products and services long after independence, because the trade systems remains the same.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Developing Country A term that includes all countries, other than those in the wealthiest category, that continue to improve their levels of development in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The label has come to replace the less preferred term, LDC, to account for the fact that LDC is a static identifies while ‘Developing’ is a dynamic one.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Development Processes related to improving people’s lives through improved access to resources, technology, education, wealth, opportunity, and choice. Governments, individuals, non-profit organizations, and inter-government agencies all work towards similar goals with a variety of different approaches.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Dialect: Variants of the single language.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Diaspora a group of people sharing a common historical and ethnic connection to a territory, but who no longer live in that territory or country. Some members of a diaspora may have been removed from the traditional homeland for multiple generations but still identify with it as a “homeland.”       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Diffusion spread of ideas, objects, inventions, and other practices from place to place.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Discrimination: Mistreatment due to perceived difference.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Dispersed rural settlement a rural settlement pattern in which farmers live on individual farms isolated from neighbors       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Diversity: Having a range of different people.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Domestic subsidy A government-sponsored financial incentive that provides a production advantage to a company or entity. This may take a variety of forms. Examples include no-interest loans or cash payouts to farmers that meet certain criteria. Such programs are designed to lower risks and increase productivity of particular industries, services, or products and to protect them from competition that comes from outside of that country.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    double cropping method used in the milder climates in which intensive subsistence fields are planted and harvested twice per year       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Doubling time: The period of time required for a population to double in size.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Dualism the juxtaposition in geographic space of the formal and informal sectors of the economy       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Ecological Fallacy: Characteristics about the nature of individuals are deduced from inference for the group to which those individuals belong.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Economies of scale efficiencies in production gained from operating at a larger scale.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Ecumene human inhabited areas of Earth       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Ecumene: The Greek concept of the habitable part of the Earth       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Edge city a nodal concentration of shopping and office space situated on the outer fringes of metropolitan areas, typically near major highway intersections       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Emigrant an individual who moves away from one country into another for a prolonged period. The definition of “prolonged” varies by country and is defined by the World Bank as minimum of one year.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Enclave: Self-enforced separation for a racial or ethnic group.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Environmental determinism the idea that the natural or physical environment shapes and creates cultures; in other words, the environment essentially dictates culture.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Environmental Justice: The concept that environmental benefits and burdens should be equally shared across different socio-economic groups.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Ethnic boundary a boundary that encompasses a particular ethnic group.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Ethnic cleansing: An attempt to complete expunge or remove traces of another population from a place. May or may not relate to genocide.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Ethnic religions: A religion associated with a particular ethnic group.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Ethnicity: group of people sharing a common cultural or national heritage and often sharing a common language or religion.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Eutrophication the process by which nutrient-rich waters promote the growth of algae, and when the abundant algal blooms die, the decomposition of the dead plant material consumes large amounts of oxygen.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Expansion diffusion the type of diffusion involves the spread outward from a core area that contains the idea, cultural practice, etc. and can occur from person-toperson contact (as with a contagious disease) or through a hierarchy.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Fair Trade One of a variety of different global trading systems that seek to guarantee fair (higher) payment for producers; often with other social and environmental considerations.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    famine extreme scarcity of food       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Fashion The latest and most socially esteemed style of clothing or other products and behaviors.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    First effective settlement: Doctrine in which the first group able to assert dominance provides the template for the future society.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Fiscal squeeze increasing limitations on city revenues, combined with increasing demands for expenditure       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Folk Culture Culture practiced by a small, homogeneous, usually rural group. AKA Traditional culture.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    food regime specific set of links, indicating the ways a particular type of food is dominant during a specific time       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    food security the situation when all people, at all times, have access to food for an active and healthy life       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    food sovereignty the right of people, communities, and countries to define their own agricultural policies       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Foodway: The cultural, social, and economic practices relating to the production and consumption of food.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Footloose capitalism spatial flexibility of production.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Forced migration a type of movement in which individuals or groups are coerced into moving by an external set of forces, most notably environmental, economic, social, or political factors.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Fordism rational form of mass production for standardizing and simplifying production.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Fordism principles for mass production based on assembly-line techniques, scientific management, mass consumption based on higher wages, and sophisticated advertising techniques       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Formal region a region defined by homogeneity in one or a number of different characteristics.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Formal region A region that has defined boundaries, often a governmental unit such as a country, province, or county.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Fossil Fuels energy sources such as coal, oil, and natural gas, derived from ancient plant and animal matter.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Fragmented state a state whose territory is not contiguous, but consists of isolated parts such as islands.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Free Trade A system of trade that removes (or attempts to remove) all ‘artificial’ barriers that otherwise limit exports and exports between countries. A major component of free trade is the elimination of tariffs, duties, domestic subsidies, or laws that favor one country or company over another.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Functional region a region that is define by a central node or focal point to which other places in the region are connected.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Functional region A region defined by a relationship, such as the market area of a product, a commuter zone or an employment market.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Gateway city serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    GDP per capita GDP divided by total population.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    genetically modified organisms (GMOs): organisms that have their DNA modified in a laboratory       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Genocidal: having the purpose of exterminating an entire people.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Gentrification invasion of older, centrally located, working-class neighborhoods by higher-income households seeking the character and convenience of less expensive and well-located residences       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Geographic information systems combines computer hardware and software in a system that stores, analyzes and displays geographic data with a “computer mapping” capability in a system of data layers.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Geography literally, writing about the Earth; the study of the physical and environmental aspects of the world, from a spatial perspective.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Geometric boundary a boundary that follows a straight line and may coincide with a line of latitude or longitude.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Gerrymandering the process of redrawing legislative districts in order to benefit the party in power and ensure victory in elections.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Ghetto: Area of externally forced and legally-defined ethnic or racial separation.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Gig economy a labor market characterized by freelance work.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Gig Economy A labor market characterized by the prevalence of short-term contracts or freelance work as opposed to permanent jobs.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Global North Those countries generally considered to be ‘more developed’, which also fall primarily north of the Brandt line as drawn in 1980. See Figure 9.1.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Global South Those countries generally considered to be ‘less developed’, which also fall primarily south of the Brandt line as drawn in 1980. See Figure 9.1.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Globalization all those processes, technologies, and systems that result in greater connections, communication, and movement among increasingly distant people and places on Earth.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Globalization The global movement of money, technology, and culture.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Globalization the state in which economic and cultural systems have become global in scale.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    globalized agriculture agriculture increasingly influenced more at the global or regional levels than at national level       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Green Revolution a new agricultural technology characterized by high-yield seeds and fertilizers exported from the core to the periphery in order to increase their agricultural productivity       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Greenhouse effect the trapping of longwave radiation (heat) by certain greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere; greenhouse gases absorb and reradiate the heat radiated from the Earth, increasing global temperatures by 35oC compared to an atmosphere with no greenhouse effect.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) All of the goods and services produced within a country within a given year. The formula for GDP is Consumption + Investment + Government Spending + Net Exports. Global GDP was approximately $76 trillion in 2016.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Gross National Happiness a holistic and sustainable approach to development, which balances material and non-material values with the conviction that humans want to search for happiness. The objective of GNH is to achieve a balanced development in all the facets of life that are essential for collective and individual happiness. The 4 pillars of happiness are: 1) sustainable & equitable socio-economic development; 2) environmental conservation; 3) preservation & promotion of culture; 4) good governance.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Gross National Income All of the goods and services produced within a country in addition to all of the net income its companies and citizens receives from overseas.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Guest worker someone without legal permanent status who has been granted permission to reside in a country’s territory in order to work for a specific set of time on a particular kind of work.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Hearth areas the locations of the five earliest urban civilizations       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Heterogeneous A population composed of dissimilar people.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Highly skilled migration patterns movement by those with skills that are in high demand on the global market. Examples include nurses, doctors, IT specialists, actors/artists, and athletes who tend to enjoy greater levels of movement across borders than others.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Highly skilled migration patterns movement by those with skills that are in high demand on the global market. Examples include nurses, doctors, IT specialists, actors/artists, and athletes who tend to enjoy greater levels of movement across borders than others.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Homogeneous A population composed of similar people.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Human Agency The concept that human beings take an active role in their own situation to invoke change. The concept is of critical importance in understanding how and why models and theories of development are so complex.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Human Development Index (HDI) A measure developed by the United Nations in 1990 to consider and compare levels of development by all countries of the world using life expectancy, literacy, school enrollment, and income as the indicators. This provides a more meaningful way to compare countries than looking only at income/GDP. Those with the highest HDI tend to be in Australia and Northern Europe. Those with the lowest tend to be in Sub-Saharan Africa.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Human Development Report An annual comprehensive analysis, assessment, and ranking of every country in the world based upon the Human Development Index. The report has been compiled and released every year since 1990.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    hunting and gathering activities through which people obtain food from hunting wild animals, fishing, and gathering fruits, nuts and roots       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Immigrant an individual who moves for a prolonged period to another country. The definition of “prolonged” varies by country. In 2016 there were 246 million immigrants in the world.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Immigration: Incoming migration to a place.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Infant Mortality Rate A measure of how many children die in any given year compared to 1,000 live births. Countries with low levels of development tend to have high infant mortality.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Infant mortality rate: The number of infant deaths that occur for every 1,000 live births.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Informal Economy Those activities within any economic system that are unregulated, untaxed, and/or unquantified. Includes, but not limited to: selling anything illegally, unreported paid work, consuming unlicensed/artificial products (movies, music, watches, etc.). Women, children, and the poor are those most likely engaged in the informal economy, but globalization and technology also plays an important in driving new forms of informalization. This sector of the economy is also related to the rise of the gig economy, in which workers increasingly are contractors rather than employees an important distinction.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Informal sector economic activities that take place beyond official record, not subject to formalized systems of regulation or remuneration       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    intensive subsistence agriculture a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers involve the effective and efficient use of small parcels of land in order to maximize crop yield per hectare       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Intergenerational language shift: A linguistic pattern of acculturation found in US immigrant groups in which a group shifts from being non-English monolingual to English monolingual.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Intermodal transportation system using more than one of transport.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Internally Displaced People (IDP) those who have moved or been forced to move from a homeland for the same reasons as refugees but have not crossed an international boundary and do not have refugee status.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    International Date Line roughly follows 180o longitude.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    International Monetary Fund (IMF) An intergovernmental organization that provides short-term loans to governments that are in economic crisis.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    International Trade Model of Development A strategy of development in which a country embraces free trade and elects seek specialization of certain products and services that are valuable as exports in the global marketplace. Following such a strategy necessitates the embrace of increasing imports and removing barriers to trade.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Iraal a traditional African village of huts, typically enclosed       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Irredentism an effort to expand the political influence of a state on a group of people in a neighboring state.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Jim Crow: A set of laws enforcing racial segregation and disenfranchisement in the southern United States in the poet Civil War era.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Just in time delivery manufacturing system in which components are delivered just before they are need in order to reduce inventory and storage costs.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Landfill An area where solid waste is deposited and buried to reduce odor, vermin proliferation, and unsightly trash.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Language branch: A group of languages which share common linguistic and have evolved from a common ancestor.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Language family: A collection of languages within a family with a common ancestral language.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Langue: The internal mental capacity for language.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Latitude the numbering system for parallels.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Laws of migration generalizations about international migration as detailed by nineteenth-century demographers       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Least Developed Countries (LDC’s) Defined by the United Nations, those countries with the lowest levels of combined income, human assets, and economic vulnerability. In 2015, LDC criteria was given to 48 countries, where 950 million resided and more than half earned less than $1.25/day.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Life Expectancy The average predicted number of years of life for any given person beginning at birth. In 2015, global life expectancy was about 72 years.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Life expectancy: The number of years that one is expected to live as determined by statistics.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Lingua franca: A language used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Locational criteria factors determining whether an economic activity will occur in a place.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Logistics the coordination of complex operations.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Longitude the numbering system for meridians.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Macroeconomic Theory The branch of economics concerned with large-scale or general economic factors, such as interest rates and national productivity.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Majority: A group making up more than half of a population.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Market liberalization A process of removing barriers to foreign companies from operating and competing with domestic ones       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Material culture The objects and materials related to a particular culture.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Megacity very large city characterized by both primacy and high centrality within its national economy       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Megalopolis (megapolitan region) a continuous urban complex (the chain of metropolitan areas) along a specific area (a clustered network of cities)       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Merchant capitalism the earliest phase in the development of capitalism as an economic and social system       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Meridian half circles that connect the North and South poles.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Micro-finance Financial and banking services designed for those who otherwise would be excluded due to their socioeconomic situation.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Micro-loans Very small loans designed for those who otherwise would be excluded due to their socioeconomic situation.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Migration a permanent move to a new location       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Minority: A group making up less than half of a population.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Modernization theory –Belief that, with the proper intervention each country will pass through a similar pathway of development       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Monotheism: The belief in one god.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Morbidity: The state of being diseased or unhealthy within a population.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    More Developed Country (MDC’s) A category for those countries that have the highest levels of development as measured by income, education, and industrialization. MDC’s tend to derive most of their GDP from services rather than from agriculture or manufacturing in the 21st century. The term MDC is used less commonly than the term ‘Developed Country’ but serves as a convenient way to refer to the wealthiest countries collectively.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Mortality: The number of people who have died within a population.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Multi-national state state that has more than one nation within their borders.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Multiple-nuclei model a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Nation group of people bonded by cultural attributes such as language, ethnicity and religion.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Nation-state state in which the territorial boundaries encompass a group of people with a shared ethnicity.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Nation: An ethnicity or a people.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Neo-Fordism economic principles in which the logic of mass production coupled with mass consumption is modified by the addition of more flexible production, distribution, and marketing systems       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Net migration the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants in any given year       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Newly Industrialized Country (NIC) Newly industrialized country. Examples include (but not limited to): India, China, Singapore, Taiwan, Turkey, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa and Thailand       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Nonrenewable resource a resource that is in finite supply and is depleted by humans.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Nontariff barrier to trade Any impediment to trade placed by governments, including regulations based upon environmental, cultural, or political concerns. Examples include political trade embargoes or the prohibition of trade in eagle feathers, ‘blood’ diamonds, and human organs.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    nontraditional agricultural exports new export crops that contrast with traditional exports       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Official language: A language that is given a special legal status over other languages in a country.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Offshoring shifting the production of a good or the provision of a service to another country.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Opportunity Cost The activity that has to be given up (forgone) in order to conduct the current activity. A country, for example, may choose to specialize in the production of coffee or cocoa. If it chooses coffee, then the opportunity cost is represented by the cocoa production that it could have, but did not produce. In classical economic terms, the opportunity cost is the difference between the two outcomes.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    organic farming a method of crop and livestock production without commercial fertilizers, pesticides, growth hormones, and genetically modified organisms       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Outsourcing shifting the production of a good or the provision of a service from within a company to an externals source.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Overpopulation: A condition in which a place has outstripped its ability to provide for its own needs.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Parallel circles that encompass the Earth and are parallel to the equator.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Parole: The external manifestation of ideas through speech.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    pastoral nomadism a traditional form of subsistence agriculture in which the pastoralists travel with their herds over long distances and with no fixed pattern       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    pastoralism subsistence activity that involves the breeding and herding of animals to satisfy the human needs of food, shelter, and clothing       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Perceptual region Internally defined region that exists as the expression of a cultural type.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Physical boundary a boundary that follows a natural feature on the landscape such as a river, mountain range, or lake.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Physiological density: The number of people per unit area of arable land.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Pidgin: A composite language with a simplified grammatical system and a limited vocabulary.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Pilgrimage: A journey to a sacred place.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Placelessness The state of having no place. In the modern context, a place exactly like any other place.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    plantation large landholdings in developing regions specialized in the production of one or two crops usually for export to more developed countries       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Points system a national immigration policy that seeks to attract people with a specific set of skills, experience, and job training to satisfy unmet demand among those currently in the country. Regardless of origin country, anyone with the prescribed set of skills, linguistic ability, and education may apply to migrate to that country if they have acquired enough points to do so. Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and England all have a points system.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Polytheism: The belief in many gods.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Popular Culture Culture created for consumption by the mass of population.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Population density: A measurement of population per areal unit, such as the world, a region, a country or other area.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Population momentum: The tendency for population growth to continue due to high concentrations of people in the childbearing years.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Population projection An estimate of future population.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Population pyramid: Graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Possibilism the theory people can adapt to their environmental conditions and choose from many alternatives (possibilities), despite the limitations that the environment pose.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Potential reserves estimates on available energy in deposits that are thought to exist but have not been completely verified.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Preservation setting aside areas so that resources are essentially untouched with as little human impact as feasible.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Primacy condition in which the population of the largest city in an urban system is disproportionately large in relation to the second- and third-largest cities       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Primate city the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Prime Meridian 0o longitude, passes through Greenwich, England.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Production the extraction of fossil fuels from the ground.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Projection the process of transferring locations from the Earth’s curved surface to a flat map.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Prophecy: Communication with a supernatural power.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Proselytizing: Seeking converts to a religion.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Protestant Reformation a schism from the Roman Catholic Church initiated by Martin Luther       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Proto-language: An historic language from which known languages are believed to have descended by differentiation of the proto-language into the languages that form a language family.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Pull Factor those forces that encourage people to move into a particular place       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Purchase Power Parity (PPP) A formula that accounts for cost of living variability from one place to another. PPP adjusted income allows for a meaningful comparison between two places with different cost structures.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Push Factor those forces that encourage people to move away from a particular place       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Quota A control on trade that limits amounts of particular items that may be imported or exported from/to a particular country.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Race: The categorization of humans into groups based physical characteristics or ancestry.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    ranching a form of commercial agriculture in which the livestock graze over an extensive area       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Rank-size rule statistical regularity in size distribution of cities and regions       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Rate of natural increase: The crude birth rate minus the crude death rate. This rate excludes the effect of migration.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Refugee an individual who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable, or unwilling, to avail themselves of the protection of that country. An individual who has been granted “refugee” status is afforded a certain set of rights and privileges, mostnotably, the right not to be forcibly returned to the country of origin.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Region an area that shares some sort of common characteristic that binds the area into a whole.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Religious fundamentalism: The belief in the absolute authority of a religious text.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Relocation diffusion the diffusion process in which people migrate or move to a new area, and bring their ideas, objects, and the like with them.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Remittance Money sent to the country of origin by overseas workers. This has become a significant driver of development in many countries in recent years.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Remittances money sent “home” by international migrants. Remittances represent the largest single source of external funding in many developing countries. The global figure for 2016 was US$600 billion.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Remote sensing acquisition of data about the Earth’s surface from aerial platforms such as satellites, airplanes, or drones.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Renaissance a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Renewable resource a resource that is in infinite supply such as solar and wind energy.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Replacement level: The average number of children a woman needs to have to ensure the population replaces itself. The number is roughly 2.1.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Resistance Actively pursuing a policy of obstruction of a particular process or undertaking.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Resource Curse/Dutch Disease The idea that those places blessed with valuable natural resources often are negatively affected by the activities associated with cultivation, mining, and/or extracting those resources.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Return migration a return of a migrant to the country or place of origin       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Reurbanization growth of population in metropolitan central cores, following a period of absolute or relative decline in population       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Sacred spaces: Places associated with a sense of the divine.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Sanctuary: A haven or place of safety, often defined by law.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Scale ratio of the length or distance on the map versus the length or distance on the Earth or ground (actual); can also refer to the spatial extent of some phenomenon.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Schism: The fracturing of an organization.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Scientific Revolution a concept used by historians to describe the emergence of modern science during the early modern period       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Sectarian violence: Violence between different sects of the same religion.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Sector model a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, radiating out from the central business district       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Secular: A condition of separation between a state and any religion.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Segregation: The spatial and/or social separation of people by race or ethnicity.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Self Sufficiency Model of Development A centralized strategy of development for a country that seeks to develop all sectors of an economy within one’s own borders and reduce dependency on outside entities. Such an approach requires tight controls on imports and exports as well as considerable protections on domestic producers against outside competitors.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    shifting cultivation a form of subsistence agriculture, which involves a kind of natural rotation system       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Shock city a city recording surprising and disturbing changes in economic, social, and cultural life in a short period of time       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Site a way to describe a location; refers to the physical characteristics, such as the topography, vegetative cover, climatic conditions, etc.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Situation a way to describe a location by referring to the area surrounding the place, and is sometimes referred to as relative location.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    slash-and-burn agriculture a method for obtaining more agricultural land in which fields are cleared (swidden) by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Specialization A focus upon skills, experience, and resources that improve capacity to produce one or more types of goods or services that are in high demand in the global economy. Specialization is directly related to the international trade model of development.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Speech community: People who share a similar cultural background and language knowledge.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Speech situations: Locations and occasions requiring the use of different styles of language.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Sprawl development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Stages of Growth A concept that aims to categorize any national economy according to its stage. Stages are deterministic. The 5 stages are: traditional, transitional, take- off, drive to maturity, and high mass consumption.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    State a formal region in which the government has sovereignty or control of its own affairs within its territorial boundaries.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    State religion: The official religion of a state. This is not the same as theocracy.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Stateless nation a nation that aspires to become a nation-state but does not yet have their own territory.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Structural Adjustment Program A series of requirements (adjustments) placed upon any country that accepts a loan from the IMF.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    subsistence agriculture farming designed to grow food only to sustain farmers and their families, consuming most of that they produce without entering into cash economy of the country       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Suburbanization growth of population along the fringes of large metropolitan areas       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Supply chain all products and process involved in the production of goods.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Supranational organization an alliance involving three or more states who have shared objectives that may be economic, political/military, or cultural.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    sustainable agriculture the efficient production of safe, high quality agricultural products, in a way that protects and improves the natural environment, the social and economic conditions of farmers, and safeguards the health and welfare of all farmed species       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Sustainable development A mode of development theory and strategy that considers and accounts for the impacts of economic growth upon society, culture, and environment.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    swidden land that is cleared for planting using the slash-and-burn process       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Syncretic religion: A religion formed by the combination of other religions.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Tariff A tax placed upon imports.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Taylorism the scientific management of production.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Terrorism intimidation of a population by violence in order to further political aims.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Text: The use and arrangement of specific language forms.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Theocracy: A state ruled by religious principles.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Toponymy: The study of place names.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Total fertility rate The average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    transhumance a seasonal vertical movement by herding the livestock to cooler, greener high country pastures in the summer and returning them to lowland settings for fall and winter grazing       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Transnationalism exchanges and interactions across borders that are a regular and sustained part of migrants’ realities and activities that transcend a purely “national” space.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Typological classification: Classification based on the comparison of the formal similarities in pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary which exist among languages.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Underemployment situation in which people work less than full-time even though they would prefer to work more hours       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    undernourishment/undernutrition inadequate dietary consumption that is below the minimum requirement for maintaining a healthy life       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Undocumented migrants those inside of a country without proper authorization or proof of residence.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Universalism idea that phenomena, conceptual definitions or moral, aesthetic or epistemological truths hold for all times and places, transcending their immediate local circumstances. Its significance for development lies in the belief that human development is not for the few, not even for the most, but for everyone.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Universalizing religion: A religion that seeks converts.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Urban area a dense core of census tracts, densely settled suburbs, and low-density land that links the dense suburbs with the core       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Urban forms physical structure and organization of cities       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Urban system interdependent set of urban settlements within a specified region       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    urbanism way of life, attitudes, values, and patterns of behavior fostered by urban settings       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Urbanization increasing concentration of population into growing metropolitan areas       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Visa the legal permission granted by a receiving country to those seeking to enter. Examples include tourist, temporary work, and student visas. A visa is different from a passport.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    World Bank a financial institution established near the end of WWII with the purpose of providing capital in the form of loans to developing countries and to those in need of reconstruction at the end of the war. The bank offers loans to countries for large-scale projects.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    World city city in which a disproportionate part of the world’s most important business is conducted       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    World Systems Theory an approach to world history and social change that suggests there is a world economic system in which some countries benefit while others are exploited       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    WorLd-empire minisystems that have been absorbed into a common political system while retaining their fundamental cultural differences       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    WTO World Trade Organization. An intergovernmental organization created in 1994 that promotes international trade between countries. It seeks to reduce trade restrictions, enforce existing agreements, and protect intellectual property.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Xenophobia: fear of the different.       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson
    Zone in transition area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD       David Dorrel & Joseph P. Henderson