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2: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth

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    • 2.1: Heredity
      Introduction to the concept of genetic heredity, including mitosis and meiosis.
    • 2.2: Genotypes and Phenotypes
      The difference between genotype, the sum total of all the genes a person inherits, and phenotype, the features actually expressed in the person. Also includes discussion of homozygous vs heterozygous genetic inheritance, dominant vs recessive alleles, and incomplete dominance.
    • 2.3: Genetic Disorders
      Most of the known genetic disorders are dominant gene-linked; however, the vast majority of dominant gene linked disorders are not serious or debilitating. Overview of the symptoms, effects, and frequencies of genetic disorders as sorted into the recessive, autosomal dominant, and sex-linked categories.
    • 2.4: Chromosomal Abnormalities
      A chromosomal abnormality occurs when a child inherits too many or two few chromosomes. Discusses causes of chromosomal disorders and the classification of chromosomal disorders into autosomal and sex-linked categories.
    • 2.5: Behavioral Genetics
      Behavioral Genetics is the scientific study of the interplay between the genetic and environmental contributions to behavior. Various methods by which the genotype and the environment can interact, including genotype-environment correlation, genotype-environment interactions, and epigenetics.
    • 2.6: Prenatal Development
      Prenatal development as divided into the germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods. Overview of some of the changes that take place during each period.
    • 2.7: Teratogens
      Teratogens are environmental factors that can contribute to birth defects. Overview of the factors influencing prenatal exposure to teratogens, the major categories of teratogens, and their effects.
    • 2.8: Maternal Factors
      Overview of factors relating to the mother that can impact the developing pregnancy, including maternal age and various physiological conditions.
    • 2.9: Prenatal Assessment
      Overview of various assessments that are suggested as part of routine prenatal care to find conditions that may increase the risk of complications for the mother and fetus. Brief discussion of infertility treatments and reproductive technology.
    • 2.10: Complications of Pregnancy
      Overview of the common minor and major complications of pregnancy, as well as maternal mortality and miscarriage.
    • 2.11: Birth
      How expectant parents can prepare for childbirths. Overview of the stages of vaginal delivery and situations that might call for a non-standard delivery procedure such as a C-section or induced birth.
    • 2.12: Assessing the Neonate
      The common methods of assessing a newborn's overall condition. Overview of common newborn health problems and postpartum maternal concerns.
    • 2.C: COVID-19 Impact on Prenatal Development
      Brief discussion of the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on prenatal development, in terms of maternal vaccine impact and increased alcohol use (including among pregnant women) during the pandemic.
    • 2.R: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth (References)

    Thumbnail: Newborn being weighted. (Unsplash License; Christian Bowen via Unsplash)

    This page titled 2: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.