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7: Emerging and Early Adulthood

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    • 7.1: Emerging Adulthood
      Defining emerging adulthood, the age period where individuals have left behind the relative dependency of childhood and adolescence but have not yet taken on the responsibilities of adulthood. Cultural variations in the theory of emerging adulthood.
    • 7.2: When Does Adulthood Begin?
      Markers of the transition between emerging and established adulthood. Definition of established adulthood. Trends of living arrangements of people in emerging and established adulthood.
    • 7.3: Physical Development in Emerging and Established Adulthood
      Overview of physical development in emerging and established adulthood, including the reaching of the physiological peak and the beginning of aging. Obesity trends and consequences among people in early adulthood.
    • 7.4: A Healthy but Risky Time
      The major causes of death in emerging and early adulthood, and the risks created by abuse of alcohol and other substances in this age group.
    • 7.5: Gender
      Exploration of gender identity in adulthood. Discrimination against people of gender minorities, and how the mental health of these individuals is affected by stresses caused by their minority status.
    • 7.6: Sexuality
      Overview of the sexual response cycle, including the roles played by the brain and hormones. Sexual orientation, biological hypotheses for how different sexual orientations develop, and discrimination against people of minority sexual orientations.
    • 7.7: Cognitive Development in Emerging and Early Adulthood
      The development in adulthood of postformal thought, according to Piaget's theory, and dialectical thought as opposed to dichotomies. Discussion of whether everyone reaches the stage of postformal or even formal operational thought.
    • 7.8: Education and Career
      Trends in college attainment rates, student debt levels, and impact of educational level on career earnings and employment level. Stages of career development and generational trends in employment. How gender and sexism impacts career and employment.
    • 7.9: Psychosocial Development in Emerging and Early Adulthood
      The relationship between infant and adult temperament. The difference between temperament and personality, and the five-factor model of personality proposed by John et al.
    • 7.10: Attachment in Young Adulthood
      Adult attachment styles as proposed by Hassan and Shaver. Discussion of early adults' relationships with parents and siblings.
    • 7.11: Relationships and Intimacy
      Erikson's stage of intimacy vs. isolation, which focuses on establishing intimate relationships or risking social isolation. Factors that influence attraction. Types of relationships that help meet the need for intimacy in early adulthood, in terms of friendship and love.
    • 7.12: Emerging and Established Adult Lifestyles
      Trends in lifestyles of early adulthood, including trends in and factors influencing adults' choices of singlehood, casual sexual relationships, cohabitation, or marriage. Discussion of trends around the world in cohabitation and marriage.
    • 7.13: Intimate Partner Abuse
      Categories, prevalence, and consequences of abuse between intimate partners. Violence in romantic relationships is a significant concern for women in early adulthood, as women aged 18 to 34 generally experience the highest rates of intimate partner violence.
    • 7.14: Parenthood
      Trends in parenthood in early adulthood. Discussion of influences in parenthood, including parent, child, and sociological/cultural characteristics.
    • 7.C: COVID-19 Impact on Emerging and Established Adulthood
      Discussion of impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the early adult age group, including long-term COVID symptoms, trends in mental health and telepsychology, increases in substance use and domestic violence, and job losses.
    • 7.R: Emerging and Early Adulthood (References)

    Thumbnail: Young women celegrating high school graduation. (Unsplash License; Clayton Cardinalli via Unsplash)

    This page titled 7: Emerging and Early Adulthood is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.