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5.6: References

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    1. Independent variables are the circumstance of major interest in an experiment. The Participant does only react on them, but cannot actively change them. They are independent of his behaviour.
    2. The measured behaviour is called the dependent variable.
    3. At the humoral response hypothalamic neurons stimulate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones into the bloodstream and at the visceromotor response neurons in the hypothalamus adjust the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic outputs of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).
    4. αMSH neurons and CART neurons of the arcuate nucleus. αMSH(alpha-malanocyte-stimulating hormone) and CART(cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) are anoretic peptides, which activate the pituitary hormones TSH(thyroid-stimulating hormone) and ACTH(adrenocorticotropic hormone), that have the effect of raising the metabolic rate of cells throughout the body.
    5. NPY neurons and AgRP neurons. NPY(neuropeptide Y) and AgRP(agouti-related peptide) are orexigenic peptides, which inhibit the secretion of TSH and ACTH.
    6. MCH(melanin-concentrating hormone) neurons, which have extremely widespread connections in the brain, including direct monosynaptic innervation of most of the cerebral cortex, that is involved in organizing and initiating goal-directed behaviors, such as raiding the refrigerator.
    7. The NPY- and AgRP neurons.
    8. The pancreatic hormone insulin, released by β cells of the pancreas, acts directly on the arcuate and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. It appears that it operates in much the same way as leptin to regulate feeding behavior, with the difference that its primary stimulus for realisng is increased blood glucose level.


    • Zimbardo, Philip G. (1995, 12th edition). Psychology and Life. Inc. Scott, Foresman and Company, Glenview, Illinois. ISBN 020541799X
    • Banich,Marie T. (2004). Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology. Housthon Mifflin Company. ISBN 0618122109
    • Robert A. Wilson and Frank C. Keil. (2001). The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (MITECS). Bradford Book. ISBN 0262731444
    • Antonio R. Damasio. (1994) reprinted (2005). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain. Penguin Books. ISBN 014303622X
    • Antonio R. Damasio. (1999). The Feeling of what Happens. Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Harcourt Brace & Company. ISBN 0099288761
    • Aaron Ben-Ze'ev (Oct 2001). The Subtlety of Emotions.(MIT CogNet). ISBN 0262523191
    • Ward, J. (2006). The Students Guide to Cognitive Neuroscience. Hove: Psychology Press. ISBN 1841695351


    • The emotional brain. Tim Dalgleish.
    • (1) Leonard, C.M., Rolls, E.T., Wilson, F.A.W. & Baylis, C.G. Neurons in the amygdala of the monkey with responses selective for faces.

    Behav. Brain Res. 15, 159-176 (1985)

    • (2)Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Damasio, H. & Damasio, A. Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage of the human amygdala.

    Nature 372, 669-672 (1994)

    • (3)Young, A. W. et al. Face processing impairments after amygdalotomy.

    Brain 118, 15-24 (1995)

    • (4)Calder, A. J. et al. Facial emotion recognition after bilateral amygdala damage: Differentially severe impairment of fear.

    Cognit. Neuropsychol. 13, 699-745 (1996)

    • (5)Scott, S. K. et al. Impaired auditory recognition of fear and anger following bilateral amygdala lesions.

    Nature 385, 254-257 (1997)

    • (6)Cahill, L., Babinsky, R., Markowitsch, H. J. & McGaugh, J. L. The amygdala and emotional memory.

    Nature 377, 295-296 (1995)

    • (7)Wood, Jacqueline N. and Grafman, Jordan (02/2003). Human Prefrontal Cotex.

    Nature Reviews/ Neuroscience

    • (8)Brothers, L. , Ring, B. & Kling, A. Response of neurons in the macaque amygdala to complex social stimuli.

    Behav. Brain Res. 41, 199-213 (1990)

    • (9)Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W., Paradiso, M.A. (2006, 3rd edition). Neuroscience. Exploring the Brain. Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-6003-8


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