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8.S: Chapter Summary

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    Review of Key Points

    • Rogers believed that each person exists in their own, unique experiential field. Only they can see that field clearly, although even they may not perceive it accurately (incongruence).
    • The self is that portion of the experiential field that is recognized as “I” or “me.” It is organized into a self-structure.
    • In order for a person to grow, they must fulfill a need for positive regard. This can only come from receiving unconditional positive regard from important family members and friends (typically beginning with the parents).
    • When an individual’s self-regard and positive regard are closely related, the person is said to be congruent. If not, they are said to be incongruent.
    • Rogers described individuals who are congruent and continuing to grow as fully functioning persons.
    • Successful marriages, according to Rogers, seem to be based on dedication/commitment, communication, dissolution of roles, and maintaining each person’s separate self.
    • Rogers extended his study of clinical psychology into other groups designed to help all people grow and self-actualize, such as T-groups and encounter groups. He described his shift from purely clinical work to fostering growth in all people as a person-centered approach.
    • Values were very important to Maslow in his approach to psychology. He did not, however, advocate his own values. He reached beyond humanistic psychology to include areas of study such as existential psychology, existential theology, and Zen Buddhism.
    • The lower needs can be described as deficiency-needs, whereas self-actualization is a Being-need.
    • Maslow described fourteen characteristics of self-actualizing people. He developed his list by studying both contemporary and historical people who seemed to him to be self-actualizing.
    • Maslow described two defense mechanisms that interfere with the process of self-actualizing: desacralizing and the Jonah complex.
    • Some individuals experience profound peak experiences, which Maslow described as transcendent. His concept of transcendence seems very close to the Buddhist perspective of interbeing.
    • When Eupsychian management does support self-actualization, the actualization of each person benefits the others around them. The process is known as synergy.
    • Murray based “personology” on the study of needs. He distinguished between viscerogenic needs and psychogenic needs.
    • Murray believed that a person’s ability to create a story around a picture in the TAT was based in large part on their personal mythology. He shared this interest in myth, and its role in psychology, with Carl Jung and Rollo May.
    • The distinction between humanistic psychology and existential psychology is not clear, and there is significant overlap in the thinking of representatives from both fields. In addition, there is a distinct humanistic element in the psychodynamic theories of Adler, Horney, Fromm, Murray, and others

    Discussion Question: Consider Murray’s list of psychogenic needs. Which needs are the ones that affect you the most? Are you able to fulfill those needs?

    This page titled 8.S: Chapter Summary is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Mark D. Kelland (OpenStax CNX) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.