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31.6: Appendix

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    The Mini-iPiP Scale

    (Donnellan et al., 2006)
    Instructions: Below are phrases describing people’s behaviors. Please use the rating scale below to describe how accurately each statement describes you. Describe yourself as you generally are now, not as you wish to be in the future. Describe yourself as you honestly see yourself, in relation to other people you know of the same sex as you are, and roughly your same age. Please read each statement carefully, and put a number from 1 to 5 next to it to describe how accurately the statement describes you.

    1 = Very inaccurate
    2 = Moderately inaccurate
    3 = Neither inaccurate nor accurate 4 = Moderately accurate
    5 = Very accurate

    1. Am the life of the party (E)
    2. Sympathize with others’ feelings (A)
    3. Get chores done right away (C)
    4. Have frequent mood swings (N)
    5. Have a vivid imagination (O)
    6. Don’t talk a lot (E)
    7. Am not interested in other people’s problems (A)
    8. Often forget to put things back in their proper place (C)
    9. Am relaxed most of the time (N)
    10. Am not interested in abstract ideas (O)
    11. Talk to a lot of different people at parties (E)
    12. Feel others’ emotions (A)
    13. Like order (C)
    14. Get upset easily (N)
    15. Have difficulty understanding abstract ideas (O)
    16. Keep in the background (E)
    17. Am not really interested in others (A)
    18. Make a mess of things (C)
    19. Seldom feel blue (N)
    20. Do not have a good imagination (O)

    Scoring: The first thing you must do is to reverse the items that are worded in the opposite direction. In order to do this, subtract the number you put for that item from 6. So if you put a 4, for instance, it will become a 2. Cross out the score you put when you took the scale, and put the new number in representing your score subtracted from the number 6.

    Items to be reversed in this way:

    6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20

    Next, you need to add up the scores for each of the five OCEAN scales (including the reversed numbers where relevant). Each OCEAN score will be the sum of four items. Place the sum next to each scale below.

    Openness: Add items 5, 10, 15, 20 Conscientiousness: Add items 3, 8, 13, 18 Extraversion: Add items 1, 6, 11, 16 Agreeableness: Add items 2, 7, 12, 17 Neuroticism: Add items 4, 9,14, 19

    Compare your scores to the norms below to see where you stand on each scale. If you are low on a trait, it means you are the opposite of the trait label. For example, low on Extraversion is Introversion, low on Openness is Conventional, and low on Agreeableness is Assertive.

    19–20 Extremely high

    17–18 Very high

    14–16 High

    11–13 Neither high nor low; in the middle

    8–10 Low

    6–7 Very low

    4–5 Extremely low


    Allport, G. W., & Odbert, H. S. (1936). Trait names: A psycho-lexical study. Psychological Monographs, 47(1), 211. h0093360

    Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007). Empirical, theoretical, and practical advantages of the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Social Psychological Review, 11(2), 150–166. https://

    Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Reviews of Psychology, 56(1), 453–484.

    Donnellan, M. B., Oswald, F. L., Baird, B. M., & Lucas, R. E. (2006). The mini-IPIP scales: Tiny-yet-effective measures of the Big Five factors of personality. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 192–203. doi. org/10.1037/1040-3590.18.2.192

    Eysenck, H. J. (1981). A model for personality. Springer Verlag. Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative “description of personality”: The

    Big-Five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(6), 1216–1229. 0022-3514.59.6.1216

    Gray, J. A. (1981). A critique of Eysenck’s theory of personality. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), A model for personality (pp. 246–276). Springer Verlag.

    Gray, J. A., & McNaughton, N. (2000). The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.

    Matthews, G., Deary, I. J., & Whiteman, M. C. (2003). Personality traits. Cambridge University Press.

    McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 81–90. 0022-3514.52.1.81

    McCrae, R. R., & John, O. P. (1992). An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 60(2), 175–215.

    Mischel, W. (1968). Personality and assessment. John Wiley.

    Paunonen, S. V., & Ashton, M. S. (2001). Big five factors and facets and the prediction of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(3), 524–539. 0022-3514.81.3.524

    Roberts, B. W., Kuncel, N. R., Shiner, R., Caspi, A., & Golberg, L. R. (2007). The power of personality: The comparative validity of personality traits, socioeconomic status, and cognitive ability for predicting important life outcomes. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2(4), 313–345.

    This page titled 31.6: Appendix is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Kate Votaw.

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