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32.2: Definition Of A Psychological Disorder

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    Perhaps the simplest approach to conceptualizing psycho- logical disorders is to label behaviors, thoughts, and inner experiences that are atypical, distressful, dysfunctional, and sometimes even dangerous, as signs of a disorder. For example, if you ask a classmate for a date and you are rejected, you probably would feel a little dejected. Such feelings would be normal. If you felt extremely depressed—so much so that you lost interest in activities, had difficulty eating or sleeping, felt utterly worthless, and contemplated suicide—your feelings would be atypical, would deviate from the norm, and could signify the presence of a psychological disorder. Just because something is atypical, however, does not necessarily mean it is disordered.

    For example, only about 4% of people in the United States have red hair, so red hair is considered an atypical characteristic (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)), but it is not considered disordered, it’s just unusual. And it is less unusual in Scotland, where approximately 13% of the population has red hair (“DNA Project Aims,” 2012). As you will learn, some disorders, although not exactly typical, are far from atypical, and the rates in which they appear in the population are surprisingly high.

    Behaviorism_1.gif
    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Red hair is considered unusual, but not abnormal. (a) Isla Fischer, (b) Prince Harry, and (c) Jessica Chastain are three natural redheads. [(a) “Isla Fisher 2013” by Georges Biard/Wikimedia Commons is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0; (b) “Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex 2020 cropped 02” by UK Department of International Development/ Wikimedia Commons is licensed under CC BY 2.0; (c) “Jessica Chastain Cannes 2012 (Cropped)” by Georges Biard/Wikimedia Commons is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.]

    If we can agree that merely being atypical is an insufficient criterion for a having a psychological disorder, is it reasonable to consider behavior or inner experiences that differ from widely expected cultural values or expectations as disordered? Using this criterion, a woman who walks around a subway platform wearing a heavy winter coat in July while screaming obscenities at strangers may be considered as exhibiting symptoms of a psychological disorder. Her actions and clothes violate socially accepted rules governing appropriate dress and behavior; these characteristics are atypical.


    32.2: Definition Of A Psychological Disorder is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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