By Simona Buetti and Alejandro Lleras
What Is Vision?
The Importance of Contrast
Sensitivity to Different Light Conditions
The Reconstruction Process
The Experience of Color
Integration with Other Modalities
- Video: Acquired knowledge and its impact on our three-dimensional interpretation of the world - 3D Street Art
- Video: Acquired knowledge and its impact on our three-dimensional interpretation of the world - Anamorphic Illusions
- Video: Acquired knowledge and its impact on our three-dimensional interpretation of the world - Optical Illusion
- Web: Amazing library with visual phenomena and optical illusions, explained
- Web: Anatomy of the eye
- Web: Demonstration of contrast gain adaptation
- Web: Demonstration of illusory contours and lateral inhibition. Mach bands
- Web: Demonstration of illusory contrast and lateral inhibition. The Hermann grid
- Web: Further information regarding what and where/how pathways
- Binocular advantage
- Benefits from having two eyes as opposed to a single eye.
- Photoreceptors that operate in lighted environments and can encode fine visual details. There are three different kinds (S or blue, M or green and L or red) that are each sensitive to slightly different types of light. Combined, these three types of cones allow you to have color vision.
- Relative difference in the amount and type of light coming from two nearby locations.
- Contrast gain
- Process where the sensitivity of your visual system can be tuned to be most sensitive to the levels of contrast that are most prevalent in the environment.
- Dark adaptation
- Process that allows you to become sensitive to very small levels of light, so that you can actually see in the near-absence of light.
- Lateral inhibition
- A signal produced by a neuron aimed at suppressing the response of nearby neurons.
- Opponent Process Theory
- Theory of color vision that assumes there are four different basic colors, organized into two pairs (red/green and blue/yellow) and proposes that colors in the world are encoded in terms of the opponency (or difference) between the colors in each pair. There is an additional black/white pair responsible for coding light contrast.
- A photochemical reaction that occurs when light hits photoreceptors, producing a neural signal.
- Primary visual cortex (V1)
- Brain region located in the occipital cortex (toward the back of the head) responsible for processing basic visual information like the detection, thickness, and orientation of simple lines, color, and small-scale motion.
- Photoreceptors that are very sensitive to light and are mostly responsible for night vision.
- The blending of two or more sensory experiences, or the automatic activation of a secondary (indirect) sensory experience due to certain aspects of the primary (direct) sensory stimulation.
- Trichromacy theory
- Theory that proposes that all of your color perception is fundamentally based on the combination of three (not two, not four) different color signals.
- Vestibulo-ocular reflex
- Coordination of motion information with visual information that allows you to maintain your gaze on an object while you move.
- What pathway
- Pathway of neural processing in the brain that is responsible for your ability to recognize what is around you.
- Where-and-How pathway
- Pathway of neural processing in the brain that is responsible for you knowing where things are in the world and how to interact with them.