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Key Terms Chapter 06: Groups and Organizations

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    Example and Directions
    Words (or words that have the same definition)The definition is case sensitive(Optional) Image to display with the definition [Not displayed in Glossary, only in pop-up on pages](Optional) Caption for Image(Optional) External or Internal Link(Optional) Source for Definition
    (Eg. "Genetic, Hereditary, DNA ...")(Eg. "Relating to genes or heredity")The infamous double helix; Delmar Larsen
    Glossary Entries
    Aggregatea collection of people who exist in the same place at the same time, but who don’t interact or share a sense of identity    
    Authoritarian Leadera leader who issues orders and assigns tasks    
    Bureaucraciesformal organizations characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality.    
    Categorypeople who share similar characteristics but who are not connected in any way    
    Clear Division of Laborthe fact that each individual in a bureaucracy has a specialized task to perform    
    Coercive Organizationsorganizations that people do not voluntarily join, such as prison or a mental hospital    
    Conformitythe extent to which an individual complies with group or societal norms    
    Democratic Leadera leader who encourages group participation and consensus-building before moving into action    
    Dyada two-member group    
    Explicit Rulesthe types of rules in a bureaucracy; rules that are outlined, recorded, and standardized    
    Expressive Functiona group function that serves an emotional need    
    Expressive Leadera leader who is concerned with process and with ensuring everyone’s emotional wellbeing    
    Formal Organizationslarge, impersonal organizations    
    Groupany collection of at least two people who interact with some frequency and who share some sense of aligned identity    
    Hierarchy of Authoritya clear chain of command found in a bureaucracy    
    Impersonalitythe removal of personal feelings from a professional situation    
    In-groupa group a person belongs to and feels is an integral part of his identity    
    Instrumental Functionbeing oriented toward a task or goal    
    Instrumental Leadera leader who is goal oriented with a primary focus on accomplishing tasks    
    Iron Rule of Oligarchythe theory that an organization is ruled by a few elites rather than through collaboration    
    Laissez-faire Leadera hands-off leader who allows members of the group to make their own decisions    
    Leadership Functionthe main focus or goal of a leader    
    Leadership Stylethe style a leader uses to achieve goals or elicit action from group members    
    McDonaldization of Societythe increasing presence of the fast food business model in common social institutions    
    Meritocracya bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on merit—proven and documented skills    
    Normative or Voluntary Organizationsorganizations that people join to pursue shared interests or because they provide some intangible rewards    
    Out-groupa group that an individual is not a member of, and may even compete with    
    Primary Groupssmall, informal groups of people who are closest to us    
    Reference Groupsgroups to which an individual compares herself    
    Secondary Groupslarger and more impersonal groups that are task-focused and time limited    
    Total Institutionan organization in which participants live a controlled lifestyle and in which total resocialization occurs    
    Triada three-member group    
    Utilitarian Organizationsorganizations that are joined to fill a specific material need    
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