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Key Terms Chapter 07: Deviance, Crime, and Social Control

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    Example and Directions
    Words (or words that have the same definition)The definition is case sensitive(Optional) Image to display with the definition [Not displayed in Glossary, only in pop-up on pages](Optional) Caption for Image(Optional) External or Internal Link(Optional) Source for Definition
    (Eg. "Genetic, Hereditary, DNA ...")(Eg. "Relating to genes or heredity")The infamous double helix; Delmar Larsen
    Glossary Entries
    Conflict Theorya theory that examines social and economic factors as the causes of criminal deviance    
    Control Theorya theory that states social control is directly affected by the strength of social bonds and that deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from society    
    Corporate Crimecrime committed by white-collar workers in a business environment    
    Corrections Systemthe system tasked with supervising individuals who have been arrested for, convicted of, or sentenced for criminal offenses    
    Courta system that has the authority to make decisions based on law    
    Crimea behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions    
    Criminal Justice Systeman organization that exists to enforce a legal code    
    Cultural Deviance Theorya theory that suggests conformity to the prevailing cultural norms of lower-class society causes crime    
    Deviancea violation of contextual, cultural, or social norms    
    Differential Association Theorya theory that states individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to them who provide models of and opportunities for deviance    
    Formal Sanctionssanctions that are officially recognized and enforced    
    Hate Crimesattacks based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics    
    Informal Sanctionssanctions that occur in face-to-face interactions    
    Labeling Theorythe ascribing of a deviant behavior to another person by members of society    
    Legal Codescodes that maintain formal social control through laws    
    Master Statusa label that describes the chief characteristic of an individual    
    Negative Sanctionspunishments for violating norms    
    Nonviolent Crimescrimes that involve the destruction or theft of property, but do not use force or the threat of force    
    Policea civil force in charge of regulating laws and public order at a federal, state, or community level    
    Positive Sanctionsrewards given for conforming to norms    
    Power Elitea small group of wealthy and influential people at the top of society who hold the power and resources    
    Primary Deviancea violation of norms that does not result in any long-term effects on the individual’s self-image or interactions with others    
    Sanctionsthe means of enforcing rules    
    Secondary Deviancedeviance that occurs when a person’s self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society    
    Self-report Studya collection of data acquired using voluntary response methods, such as questionnaires or telephone interviews    
    Social Controlthe regulation and enforcement of norms    
    Social Disorganization Theorya theory that asserts crime occurs in communities with weak social ties and the absence of social control    
    Social Orderan arrangement of practices and behaviors on which society’s members base their daily lives    
    Strain Theorya theory that addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals    
    Street Crimecrime committed by average people against other people or organizations, usually in public spaces    
    Victimless Crimeactivities against the law, but that do not result in injury to any individual other than the person who engages in them    
    Violent Crimescrimes based on the use of force or the threat of force    
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