Skip to main content
Social Sci LibreTexts

Key Terms Chapter 10: Global Inequality

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    Example and Directions
    Words (or words that have the same definition)The definition is case sensitive(Optional) Image to display with the definition [Not displayed in Glossary, only in pop-up on pages](Optional) Caption for Image(Optional) External or Internal Link(Optional) Source for Definition
    (Eg. "Genetic, Hereditary, DNA ...")(Eg. "Relating to genes or heredity")The infamous double helix; Delmar Larsen
    Glossary Entries
    Absolute Povertythe state where one is barely able, or unable, to afford basic necessities    
    Capital Flightthe movement (flight) of capital from one nation to another, via jobs and resources    
    Chattel Slaverya form of slavery in which one person owns another    
    Core Nationsdominant capitalist countries    
    Debt Accumulationthe buildup of external debt, wherein countries borrow money from other nations to fund their expansion or growth goals    
    Debt Bondagethe act of people pledging themselves as servants in exchange for money for passage, and are subsequently paid too little to regain their freedom    
    Deindustrializationthe loss of industrial production, usually to peripheral and semi-peripheral nations where the costs are lower    
    Dependency Theorya theory which states that global inequity is due to the exploitation of peripheral and semi-peripheral nations by core nations    
    First Worlda term from the Cold War era that is used to describe industrialized capitalist democracies    
    Fourth Worlda term that describes stigmatized minority groups who have no voice or representation on the world stage    
    GINI Coefficienta measure of income inequality between countries using a 100-point scale, in which 1 represents complete equality and 100 represents the highest possible inequality    
    Global Feminization of Povertya pattern that occurs when women bear a disproportionate percentage of the burden of poverty    
    Global Inequalitythe concentration of resources in core nations and in the hands of a wealthy minority    
    Global Stratificationthe unequal distribution of resources between countries    
    Gross National Income (GNI)the income of a nation calculated based on goods and services produced, plus income earned by citizens and corporations headquartered in that country    
    Modernization Theorya theory that low-income countries can improve their global economic standing by industrialization of infrastructure and a shift in cultural attitudes towards work    
    Peripheral Nationsnations on the fringes of the global economy, dominated by core nations, with very little industrialization    
    Relative Povertythe state of poverty where one is unable to live the lifestyle of the average person in the country    
    Second Worlda term from the Cold War era that describes nations with moderate economies and standards of living    
    Semi-peripheral Nationsin-between nations, not powerful enough to dictate policy but acting as a major source of raw materials and an expanding middle class marketplace    
    Subjective Povertya state of poverty composed of many dimensions, subjectively present when one’s actual income does not meet one’s expectations    
    Third Worlda term from the Cold War era that refers to poor, unindustrialized countries    
    Underground Economyan unregulated economy of labor and goods that operates outside of governance, regulatory systems, or human protections    
    • Was this article helpful?