–Antonio Guterres, UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR, 2005).
- witnessing and experiencing violence,
- fleeing from a family home located in a city or village that is being destroyed, and
- walking to find refuge and safety for days or weeks with limited food, water, and resources.
- adapting to living in an overcrowded refugee camp or
- trying to rebuild life in a foreign country,
- structural stressors, such as going through the legal process of obtaining asylum or legal documentation, may also precipitate a cascade of individual mental health and family relational issues.