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10.1.5: Chapter Wrap-Up

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    115906
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    This chapter explored many of the ways that modern communication technologies help us interact with each other. Whether we’re talking over a headset to someone through our gaming console or texting our roommate, we use these technologies to communicate with people all the time. The first part of this chapter explored the history of computer-mediated communication, which was followed by a discussion of the process of computer-mediated communication. We then discussed identity formation in virtual environments. We ended the chapter by looking at four of the most commonly discussed theories related to computer-mediated communication. Hopefully, you realize that this chapter barely scratches the surface when it comes to how people are using technology to create and enhance their interpersonal relationships.

    End of Chapter

    Key Terms
    • Anonymous CMC Identities
    • ARPANET
    • Asynchronous Communication
    • Catfishing
    • Co-Present Interactions
    • Emoticons
    • Hyperpersonal
    • Impression Formation
    • Message/Bulletin Boards
    • Netiquette
    • Pseudonymity CMC Identity
    • Real-life CMC Identity
    • Richness
    • Social Presence
    • Synchronous Communication
    • Uses and Gratifications Theory

    Real World Case Study

    Jenny wasn’t meeting any potential boyfriends living in Denver. As a 28-year-old woman, she’s found meeting people more and more difficult. She’s not really into the bar scene, so meeting people in that environment is pretty much out. One day a friend of hers at work tells her about a new smartphone app called Fndr. The app allows people to see how many people are also looking for dates within a geographic location.

    She decides to download the app and see what all of the fuss is about. She creates a profile, uploads a professional picture, and decides to take a chance. Immediately, she sees a screen filled with men all looking for relationships. There is Chad, who is 1.5 miles away. There is Andrew, who is 678 feet from her. Then there was Bobby, who was less than 100 feet from her. That’s very creepy, Jenny thinks to herself. She looks at Bobby’s profile, which shows a picture of a bare-chested male torso. God, he’s ripped! She looks at another photo that shows his back flexed. That’s when she notices his eagle tattoo on the bottom center of his back. Oh my god! That’s Martha’s Husband!!!

    1. If you were Jenny, how would you respond to finding someone’s husband on a social media site for people looking for relationships?
    2. Do you think Jenny should confront Martha’s husband through Fndr?
    3. Do you think computer-mediated communication has made infidelity in the 21st Century easier?

    End of Chapter Quiz

    1. What is the term for principles for behavior and communication that are appropriate and effective in workplace settings called?
      a. professionalism
      b. communication competence
      c. communication intelligence
      d. etiquette
      e. formality
    2. Rob just received an email from one of his employees. The email is all in lowercase with zero punctuation. Rob only knows when a new sentence is reached when a capital letter rises out of nowhere. Rob’s employee has violated what?
      a. CMC norms
      b. CMC rules
      c. netiquette
      d. nonverbal cues
      e. presence
    3. Max writes fan fiction that he publishes on WattPad under the name M.L. Patterson. He has a pretty large following of readers. He’s recently realized that most of his readers assume that he’s a female based on the use of his initials instead of his first name. What type of identity does Max’s WattPad presence most represent?
      a. anonymous
      b. pseudonymous
      c. real life
      d. non-identifiable
      e. identifiable
    4. Dae-Jae is a computer designer in Korea. He works in the training department of a large multinational automobile company. He’s been tasked with creating a new virtual training program for salespeople around the world. One of his biggest concerns is ensuring that the game he designs for this training is able to immerse people in as a realistic anenvironment as possible. Dae-Jae really wants learners to feel like they are interacting with a real customer. Which theory of mediated communication best describes what Dae-Jae is concerned with?
      a. media richness theory
      b. social presence theory
      c. medium is the message
      d. social information processing theory
      e. uses and gratifications theory
    5. Alima is hanging out with her best friend at a local diner. She’s chit-chatting with her best friend, but both of them are also constantly texting other people. What type of interaction does this example most clearly illustrate?
      a. co-present
      b. dual-processing
      c. effective
      d. communicatively competent
      e. rewarding

    References

    1 Holland, B. (2018, August 22). Human computers: The women of NASA. The History Channel. https:// www.history.com/news/human-computers-women-at-nasa

    2 Campbell-Kelly, Aspray, W., Ensbenger, N., & Yost, J. R. (2014). Computer: A history of the information machine (3rd ed.). Westview Press. Frauenfelder, M. (2013). The computer: an illustrated history from its origins to the present day. Carlton. Garfinkle, S. L., & Grunspan, R. H. (2018). The computer book: From the abacus to artificial intelligence, 250 milestones in the history of computer science. Sterling.

    3 Raz, G. (2019, October 29). ‘Lo’ and behold: A communication revolution. National Public Radio. https:// www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=114280698

    4 Happy 25th, Emoticon. (2007, Summer). Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved from www.cmu. edu/homepage/beyond/2007/summer/happy-25th-emoticon.shtml; para. 5.

    5 Berners-Lee, T. (1990, May). Information management: A proposal. Retrieved from http://cds.cern.ch/ record/369245/files/dd-89-001.pdf; pg. 3.

    6 Ibid.; pg. 3.

    7 Berners-Lee, T., & Cailliau, R. (1990, November 12). WorldWideWeb: A proposal for a HyperText project. Retrieved from http://cds.cern.ch/record/2639699/fi...l_Nov-1990.pdf

    8 What is HTML5? (2013, December 12). Retrieved from https://www.w3.org/html/wiki/FAQs

    9 Culnan, M. J., & Markus, M. L. (1987). Information technologies. In F. M. Jablin, L. L. Putman, K. H. Roberts, and L. W. Porter (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 420-443). Sage.

    10 Culnan, M. J., & Markus, M. L. (1987). Information technologies. In F. M. Jablin, L. L. Putman, K. H. Roberts, and L. W. Porter (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 420-443). Sage; pg. 423.

    11 Twitter. (n.d.). Hateful conduct policy. Retrieved from: https://help.twitter.com/en/rules-and-policies/ hateful-conduct-policy

    12 Decot, D. (1984, March 13). ***Asterisks***. Retrieved from: https://groups.google.com/forum/#%21...I/E2mClWj2GV8J

    13 Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 822–848. doi.org/10.1037/0022- 3514.84.4.822

    14 Abblett, M. (2019, September 3). 5 rules for sharing genuinely and safely online: No matter what kind of social community you find yourself in, it is important to abide by a few specific guidelines for safe sharing. Mindful. https://www.mindful.org/5-rules-for-...safely-online/

    15 Campbell, S. W., & Neer, M. R. (2001). The relationship of communication apprehension and interaction involvement to perceptions of computer-mediated communication. Communication Research Reports, 18(4), 391–398. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090109384820

    16 Ibid.; pgs. 396-397.

    17 Spitzberg, B. H. (2006). Preliminary development of a model and measure of computer mediated communication (CMC) competence. Journal of Computer–Mediated Communication, 11(2), 629–666. doi. org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00030.x

    18 Hunt, D., Atkin, D., & Krishnan, A. (2012). The influence of computer-mediated communication apprehension on motives for Facebook use. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(2), 187–202. https://doi.org /10.1080/08838151.2012.678717

    19 Punyanunt-Carter, N. M., De La Cruz, J. J., & Wrench, J. S. (2017). Investigating the relationships among college students’ satisfaction, addiction, needs, communication apprehension, motives, and uses & gratifications with Snapchat. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 870–875. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.06.034

    20 Punyanunt-Carter, N. M., Cruz, J. J. D. L., & Wrench, J. S. (2018). Analyzing college students’ social media communication apprehension. CyberPsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 21(8), 511–515. doi. org/10.1089/cyber.2018.0098

    21 CareerBuilder.com. (2018, August 9). More than half of employers have found content on social media that caused them NOT to hire a candidate, according to recent CareerBuilder survey [Press Release]. Retrieved from: http://press.careerbuilder.com/2018-...Builder-Survey

    22 Ibid.

    23 Ibid.; para. 6.

    24 Ibid.; para. 7.

    25 obVite (2013). 2013 social recruiting survey results. San Mateo, CA: Author.

    26 Pitcan, M., Marwick, A. E., & Boyd, d. (2018). Performing a vanilla self: Respectability politics, social class, and the digital world. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 23(3), 163-179. doi. org/10.1093/jcmc/zmy008; pg. 170.

    27 Olsson, T., Jarusriboonchai, P., Woźniak, P., Paasovaara, S., Väänänen, K., & Lucero, A. (2019, February 14). Technologies for enhancing collocated social interaction: Review of design solutions and approaches. Computer Supported Cooperative Work. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10606-019-09345-0; pg. 2

    28 Hewlett-Packard (2005). Abuse of technology can reduce UK workers’ intelligence. Small & Medium Business press release, April 22. Retrieved July 11, 2014, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/6910385/Ab...s-intelligence

    29 Carrier, L. M., Cheever, N. A., Rosena, L. D., Benitez, S., & Chang, J. (2009). Multitasking across generations: Multitasking choices and difficulty ratings in three generations of Americans. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2), 483-489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2008.10.012

    30 Bowman, J. M., & Pace, R. C. (2014). Dual-tasking effects on outcomes of mobile communication technologies. Communication Research Reports, 31(2), 221-231. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824096.2014.907149

    31 Ibid.; pg. 228.

    32 Olsson, T., Jarusriboonchai, P., Woźniak, P., Paasovaara, S., Väänänen, K., & Lucero, A. (2019, February 14). Technologies for enhancing collocated social interaction: Review of design solutions and approaches. Computer Supported Cooperative Work. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10606-019-09345-0

    33 Ibid.; pg. 39

    34 Ibid.; pg. 39

    35 Ibid.; pg. 40

    36 Ibid.; pg. 40

    37 Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. W. W. Norton & Company.

    38 Erikson, E. (1985). Pseudospeciation in the nuclear age. Political Psychology, 6(2), 213–217. doi. org/10.2307/3790901

    39 Erikson, E. H. (1962). Reality and actuality an address. Journal of The American Psychoanalytic Association, 10(3), 451-474. https://doi.org/10.1177/000306516201000301

    40 Erikson, E. H. (1988). Youth: Fidelity and diversity. Daedalus, 117(3), 1–24.

    41 Ibid.; pg. 11.

    42 Kay, A. (2018). Erikson Online: Identity and pseudospeciation in the Internet age. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 18(4), 264-273. https://doi.org/10.1080/15283488.2018.1523732; pg. 269.

    43 Erikson, E. (1964). Insight and responsibility. Norton; pg. 103-104.

    44 Goffman, E, (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Anchor Books.

    45 Alfarid Hussain, S. M. (2015). Presentation of self among social media users in Assam: Appropriating Goffman to Facebook users’ engagement with online communities. Global Media Journal: Indian Edition, 6(1&2), 1–14. https://tinyurl.com/sbbll8a

    46 Alfarid Hussain, S. M. (2015). Presentation of self among social media users in Assam: Appropriating Goffman to Facebook users’ engagement with online communities. Global Media Journal: Indian Edition, 6(1&2), 1–14. https://tinyurl.com/sbbll8a; pg. 3.

    47 Bullingham, L., & Vasconcelos, A. C. (2013). “The presentation of self in the online world:” Goffman and the study of online identities. Journal of Information Science, 39(1), 101–112. doi. org/10.1177/0165551512470051; pg. 110.

    48 Ibid.; pg. 110.

    49 Wood, A. F., & Smith, M. J. (2005). Online communication: Linking technology, identity, & culture (2nd ed.). Routledge.

    50 Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14, 206-221.

    51 Privitera, C. (2009). Cyberbullying: The new face of workplace bullying? Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(4), 395-400. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2009.0025

    52 Wood, A. F., & Smith, M. J. (2005). Online communication: Linking technology, identity, & culture (2nd ed.). Routledge; pg. 64.

    53 Ibid.; pg. 66.

    54 Ibid.; pgs. 66-67.

    55 Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Utilization of mass communication by the individual. In J. G. Blumler, & E. Katz (Eds.), The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research (pp. 19-32).: Sage.

    56 Papacharissi, Z. & Rubin, A. M. (2000). Predictors of Internet use. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44(2), 175–196. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4402_2

    57 Pornsakulvanich, V., Haridakis, P., & Rubin, A. M. (2008). The influence of dispositions and Internet motivation on online communication satisfaction and relationship closeness. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 2292–2310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2007.11.003

    58 Short, J. A., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976). The social psychology of telecommunications. Wiley.

    59 Lee, K.-M., & Nass, C. (2005). Social-psychological origins of feelings of presence: Creating social presence with machine-generated voices. Media Psychology, 7(1), 31-45. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532785XMEP0701_2

    60 Krupić, D., Žuro, B., & Corr, P. J. (in press). Anxiety and threat magnification in subjective and physiological responses of fear of heights induced by virtual reality. Personality and Individual Differences. doi. org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109720

    61 Wood, A. F., & Smith, M. J. (2005). Online communication: Linking technology, identity, & culture (2nd ed.). Routledge; pg. 72.

    62 Wrench, J. S., & Punyanunt-Carter, N. M. (2007). The relationship between computer-mediated-communication competence, apprehension, self-efficacy, perceived confidence, and social presence. Southern Journal of Communication, 72(4), 355-378. https://doi.org/10.1080/10417940701667696

    63 Daft, R. L., & Lengel, R. H. (1983, May). Information richness: A new approach to managerial behavior and organization design (Report no. TR-ONR-DG-02). Office of Naval Research.

    64 Ibid.; pg. 7.

    65 Lengel, R. H. (1983). Managerial information process and communication-media source selection behavior [Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation]. Texas A&M University.

    66 D’Ambra, J. D., Rice, R. E., & O’Conner, M. (1998). Computer-mediated communication and media preference: An investigation of the dimensionality of perceived task equivocality and media richness. Behaviour and Information Technology, 17(3), 164-174. https://doi.org/10.1080/014492998119535

    67 Walther, J. B. (1992). Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction: A relational perspective. Communication Research, 19(1), 52–90. https://doi.org/10.1177/009365092019001003

    68 Walther, J. B. (1996). Computer-mediated communication: Impersonal, interpersonal, and hyperpersonal interaction. Communication Research, 23(1), 3-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/009365096023001001

    End of Chapter Quiz Answer Key

    1. A
    2. A
    3. B
    4. B
    5. A

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    10.1.5: Chapter Wrap-Up is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Jason S. Wrench, Narissra M. Punyanunt-Carter & Katherine S. Thweatt (OpenSUNY) via source content that was edited to conform to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.