Skip to main content
Social Sci LibreTexts

7.8: Key Terms

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    13th Amendment
    the first new amendment to the US Constitution after the Civil War; made slavery and involuntary servitude unconstitutional
    14th Amendment
    created birthright citizenship for anyone born in the United States, guaranteed equal protection under the law, and mandated due process by the states
    Arab Spring
    a series of citizen protests against the governments of Middle Eastern countries between 2010 and 2012
    Black Lives Matter
    a civil rights movement founded in 2013 to create public awareness of and accountability for police misconduct in the deaths of Black people
    civil disobedience
    the nonviolent refusal to comply with a law or laws in protest of governmental policies
    civil liberties
    limits on the government’s ability to restrict individual freedoms; in the United States, these are mentioned in the Bill of Rights
    civil rights
    government guarantees of equal protection under the law, regardless of membership in a group based on a shared characteristic, such as race, national origin, ethnicity, sex, gender, age, or ability
    the set of political values and norms derived from a country’s constitution that serve as the basis for a government’s authority
    a system of government where power is derived from the political participation of citizens and/or residents
    Dred Scott v. Sandford
    a Supreme Court decision that denied citizenship to all enslaved people of African American descent, even those born in the United States
    Equal Protection Clause
    a feature of the 14th Amendment that requires the state governments must treat all people the same
    formal executive power
    the power of presidents and governors derived from constitutions; may also be generated by laws, executive orders, and other agreements
    informal executive power
    the power of presidents and governors derived from their ability to influence political and civil discourse through rhetoric and symbolic representation
    institutional racism
    the idea that, because government institutions are built and run by those in power, whose worldviews and goals aim to perpetuate the status quo from which they benefit, government institutions therefore reinforce norms and values that enshrine racist attitudes, policies, and practices to the detriment of marginalized groups
    the theory that individuals may embody multiple minority traits that compound the discrimination they experience
    Korematsu v. United States
    a landmark Supreme Court decision that supported the wartime relocation and incarceration of Japanese Americans despite many being American citizens by birth
    an acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and other identities (including intersex and asexual)
    Loving v. Virginia
    a landmark Supreme Court decision that overturned all state laws denying interracial heterosexual couples the right to marry
    a feature of government that emphasizes the role of majorities and how the strength of the majority will shapes political decisions, outcomes, and division of resources
    Me Too
    a global civil rights movement publicizing endemic sexual harassment and sexual violence in order to raise awareness, empower those who have been affected, and instigate policy change
    negative rights
    rights stated as freedoms the government cannot infringe upon
    Obergefell v. Hodges
    a landmark Supreme Court ruling that ended state bans on same-sex marriage equality and recognized the right to marriage as a federal right for same-sex couples
    one-drop rule
    the now-discredited, racist idea that an individual with even one ancestor of African descent was deemed Black
    Plessy v. Ferguson
    a landmark Supreme Court decision that denied equal access to African Americans and reinforced segregation between White people and Black people by allowing separate accommodations and access to housing, transportation, education, etc.
    political culture
    the idea that a country’s politics and policies derive in large part from its unique political culture, which is itself a product of history, geography, religion, and other characteristics
    political minority
    any group of individuals sharing some characteristic(s) or trait(s) who have relatively less power than and whose rights may not be protected automatically by a majority group in power
    political participation
    activities like voting, running for office, contributing to campaigns and parties, protesting, lobbying, attending political events, and other processes that allow residents and citizens of a country to be actively involved in their government
    positive rights
    rights stated as freedoms the government must protect
    government-mandated financial compensation for survivors and descendants of people who experienced civil rights violations
    separate but equal
    the idea, used to justify the segregation of Black people and White people in the United States from the late 19th century into the first half of the 20th century, that separate accommodations for individuals of different races can be equal; most often associated with Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
    the right to vote, which is a civil right in the United States
    Three-Fifths Compromise
    a component of the original United States Constitution that allowed enslaved people to count toward political representation according to the formula that one slave was equal to three-fifths of a free White person
    Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
    a 1948 document created by the United Nations General Assembly after World War II that outlines a definition of human rights; established global standards that have since been adopted by many countries
    Velvet Revolution
    a 1989 nonviolent, primarily student-led civil rights movement in the former Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic and Slovakia) in response to communist rule

    7.8: Key Terms is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

    • Was this article helpful?