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10.2: Activity 1 - Reconstructing Paleoenvironments

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    Gillian Wong, University of Tübingen

    Hi, I’m Gillian Wong, a zooarchaeologist who specializes in using microfauna—small animals like rodents, insectivores, bats, reptiles, and amphibians—to reconstruct past environments. I use these reconstructions to address questions about hunter-gatherer landscape use and adaptation. This exercise uses a fictional data set but is based on actual work I did for my Ph.D. at a site in southwestern Germany.

    Our first year of excavation at the site was a year of test excavations, meaning we were testing the location for intact archaeological deposits. As the faunal analyst for the site, I first addressed the task of determining whether the site was from the Holocene (11,700 YA to the present), the Pleistocene (2,580,000 to 11,700 YA), or both. This temporal distinction allowed us to predict what cultural remains would likely be present. Fortunately, we can use the rodent and insectivore remains from a site to make this determination, which tends to be much faster than using C-14 dating.

    Rodent and insectivore (insect-eating) remains are deposited in archaeological sites as a result of predation by raptors and small carnivores; they almost never end up at sites in large numbers as a result of human activity. Many rodents and insectivores live only in specific environments, and the latest Pleistocene and Holocene environments in central Europe were very different. During the latest part of the Pleistocene, the environment in central Europe was primarily cold, dry tundra and steppes (forestless grass lands). During the Holocene, the environment was warmer and was forested.

    The data set and excavation methods presented in this activity are based on work conducted for my Ph.D. and excavation methods used by the University of Tübingen.

    Activity Goal:

    Determine whether you can detect the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary at the site using the microfaunal remains recorded in the data set. If you can detect the boundary, state where it is stratigraphically.

    About the data:

    The following data describe remains found at Paleolithic rock shelter sites in southern Germany. The fictional site has five archaeological horizons (strata) numbered from the top layer and proceeding downward as 1, 2, 2a, 3, and 4.

    The fictional site was excavated in quadrants that were 1 meter by 1 meter in dimension. Each quadrant has its own “find numbers,” meaning that more than one quadrant can produce the same find number. Therefore, each artifact is identified by the designation of the quadrant (A, B, C, etc.) and the find number—A112, for example, signifies that the artifact was the 112th find from quadrant A.

    Microfaunal remains, usually bones and teeth, were recovered during screening because of their small size. In the following database, all of the microfaunal remains came from water-screened sediment so the Artifact Type for those lines is “Sediment Bucket.” All of the macrofaunal specimens yielded by a bucket of sediment (from several to hundreds) were assigned a single find number.

    Most of the recorded data describe teeth. You’ll notice, for example, many references to “lower M1” in the Element column. This means that the specimen recorded is a lower first molar. You’ll also see “lower P4,” which refers to lower fourth premolars. “C” stands for canine and “I” stands for incisor.

    Instructions:

    1. Review the microfauna database.
    2. Use the following database and information about rodent and insectivore environmental preferences to determine whether a stratigraphic differentiation between the cold, open Pleistocene and the warm, forested Holocene is evident at the site.
    3. Present your results:
      1. Make a figure showing the presence or absence of cold-adapted and warm-adapted microfauna for each archaeological horizon.
      2. Make a table quantifying the number of specimens belonging to each taxon (genus and species) for the five archaeological horizons.
      3. Write a report that clearly states the following:

    i. whether you were able to find a Pleistocene-Holocene transition at the site and, if so, where it was located stratigraphically.

    ii. the data you used to draw your conclusions.

    iii. Any uncertainties presented by the data.

    Environmental Preferences of Microfauna*

    Common name Species name Environmental preference Comments
    Common Shrew Sorex araneus Prefers habitats that have dense vegetation and are damp, such as riparian forests and reed beds. Does not live in very dry (arid) habitats. Insectivore; from the sub-family Soricinae (red-toothed shrews).
    Eurasian Water Shrew Neomys fodiens Prefers to live near streams, lakes, and marshes. Insectivore; from the sub-family Soricinae (red-toothed shrews).
    Common Mole Talpa europaea No specific preference except for ground that is dig-able (not frozen or close to bedrock) because they live almost their entire lives underground. Insectivore; identifiable by its teeth, cranium, and forelimb long bones (such as the humerus).
    Edible Dormouse Glis glis Prefers to live in woodlands, especially deciduous woodlands. Rodent.
    Yellow-Necked Mouse Apodemus flavicollis Prefers to live in woodlands, especially deciduous woodlands. Rodent.
    Red-backed Vole Myodes glareolus Prefers forested areas or densely covered clearings on the margins of forests. Rodent.
    Water Vole Arvicola Terrestris Prefers to live near bodies of water (rivers, streams, marshes, lakes) in both lowlands and on mountains. Rodent.
    Common Vole Microtus arvalis Lives in a wide variety of open habitats but has no particular preference. Rodent; only identifiable by its lower first molar. Often grouped with M. agrestis.
    Field Vole Microtus agrestis Prefers areas with dense vegetative cover and areas that are wet. Rodent; only identifiable by its lower first molar and upper second molar. Often grouped with M. arvalis.
    Narrow-headed Vole Microtus gregalis Prefers tundra and steppe environments that are open and cold. In forests and semi-deserts, it lives in grassy areas. Rodent; only identifiable by its lower first molar.
    Eurasian Snow Vole Chionomys nivalis Prefers mountainous areas above the tree line where it is rocky, open, and cooler. Rodent; only identifiable by its lower first molar or baculum (penis bone).
    Collared Lemming Dicrostonyx torquatus Prefers cold tundra environments. Rodent.

    * The environmental preference data come from the following sources:

    Mathias et al. 2017. Microtus agrestis (Rodentia: Cricetidae). Mammalian species 49(944): 23-39.

    Niethammer, J. and Krapp, F. 1982. Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas. Band 2/I Nagetiere II. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Wiesbaden.

    The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org.

    Walker, Ernest P. 1968. Mammals of the World. Second Edition. Volume II. The John Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

    Data Set

    Quad. Find # Arch. Horizon # Taxon Element Side Portion Comment
    A 7 1 12 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 (molar 1) L complete oxide staining
    A 7 1 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete
    A 7 1 1 Glis glis upper M3 (molar 3) R complete oxide staining
    A 7 1 1 Sorex araneus lower P4 (premolar 4) L complete
    A 7 1 2 Myodes glareolus lower M2 (molar 2) R complete
    A 15 1 2 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L anterior (back) half oxide staining
    A 15 1 5 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete
    A 15 1 1 Apodemus flavicollis lower M1 R complete articulates with the mandible and lower M2 and M3
    A 15 1 1 Apodemus flavicollis lower M2 R complete articulates with the mandible and lower M1 and M3
    A 15 1 1 Apodemus flavicollis lower M3 R complete articulates with the mandible and lower M1 and M2
    A 15 1 1 Apodemus flavicollis Mandible (lower jaw) R horizontal ramus (back part of jaw) articulates with the lower M1, M2, and M3
    A 21 1 2 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete oxide staining
    A 33 1 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L complete
    A 33 1 6 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 33 1 3 Myodes glareolus lower M1 L complete oxide staining
    A 33 1 1 Talpa europea humerus (upper arm bone) R nearly complete
    A 35 1 7 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L complete oxide staining
    A 35 1 5 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete oxide staining
    A 35 1 1 Arvicola terrestris upper M2 R complete oxide staining
    A 35 1 1 Arvicola terrestris upper M1 R complete
    A 35 1 1 Myodes glareolus lower M1 L complete
    A 51 2 1 Sorex araneus mandible L complete oxide staining
    A 51 2 1 Sorex araneus lower P4 L proximal (upper) horizontal ramus
    A 51 2 10 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 51 2 3 Myodes glareolus upper M3 R complete oxide staining
    A 51 2 12 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 52 2 3 Myodes glareolus lower M1 L complete oxide staining
    A 54 2 8 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 54 2 2 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete oxide staining
    A 54 2 2 Myodes glareolus upper M1 R complete oxide staining
    A 54 2 1 Myodes glareolus upper M2 R complete
    A 55 2 2 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete oxide staining
    A 55 2 1 Glis glis lower M2 L nearly complete
    A 72 2 1 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L complete oxide staining
    A 72 2 3 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete oxide staining
    A 72 2 1 Sorex araneus lower I1 (incisor 1) L complete articulates with the mandible and lower C
    A 72 2 1 Sorex araneus lower C (canine) L nearly complete articulates with the mandible and lower I1
    A 72 2 1 Sorex araneus mandible L complete articulates with the lower I1 and C; oxide staining
    A 73 2 1 Talpa europea humerus L complete oxide staining
    A 73 2 3 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 73 2 9 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete oxide staining
    A 76 2 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete oxide staining
    A 76 2 4 Myodes glareolus lower M1 L nearly complete oxide staining
    A 77 2 2 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 77 2 5 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete oxide staining
    A 77 2 2 Myodes glareolus lower M2 L complete oxide staining
    A 77 2 1 Myodes glareolus lower M3 R complete oxide staining
    A 77 2 1 Myodes glareolus upper M3 L complete oxide staining
    A 77 2 4 Myodes glareolus lower M1 R anterior half oxide staining
    A 103 2 6 Myodes glareolus lower M1 R complete
    A 103 2 7 Myodes glareolus lower M1 L complete oxide staining
    A 103 2 1 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L complete
    A 108 2 2 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 109 2 1 Myodes glareolus lower M1 R anterior half oxide staining
    A 112 2 1 Apodemus flavicollis lower M1 L complete oxide staining
    A 112 2 1 Apodemus flavicollis upper M1 L nearly complete
    A 112 2 7 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete oxide staining
    A 112 2 2 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 122 2A 3 Myodes glareolus lower M1 L complete oxide staining
    A 122 2A 1 Myodes glareolus upper M1 L complete oxide staining
    A 122 2A 2 Myodes glareolus upper M1 R complete oxide staining
    A 122 2A 3 Myodes glareolus lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 122 2A 1 Talpa europea humerus R proximal epiphysis and shaft (upper end and long part) oxide staining
    A 122 2A 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete
    A 124 2A 1 Soricinae mandible R horizontal ramus
    A 124 2A 2 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L complete oxide staining
    A 124 2A 3 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete oxide staining
    A 124 2A 2 Myodes glareolus lower M1 L complete
    A 125 2A 1 Myodes glareolus lower M1 R complete oxide staining
    A 125 2A 5 Myodes glareolus lower M1 L nearly complete oxide staining
    A 125 2A 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R posterior half oxide staining
    A 126 2A 1 Glis glis molar - half oxide staining
    A 126 2A 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 126 2A 1 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete oxide staining
    A 138 3 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L distal (lower) half
    A 138 3 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 138 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 R complete
    A 138 3 9 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L complete
    A 140 3 11 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete oxide staining
    A 140 3 3 Microtus gregalis lower M1 L complete
    A 140 3 1 Talpa europea radius (lower arm bone) R nearly complete oxide staining
    A 140 3 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L anterior half
    A 141 3 5 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 141 3 7 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 L nearly complete
    A 141 3 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M3 R complete
    A 143 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L complete
    A 143 3 2 Microtus gregalis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 143 3 1 Microtus gregalis lower M1 R complete oxide staining
    A 143 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 R complete oxide staining
    A 143 3 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 143 3 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 156 3 3 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 156 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 L complete
    A 156 3 6 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 R complete
    A 156 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R anterior half
    A 159 3 1 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 159 3 3 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete oxide staining
    A 159 3 15 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L complete; nearly complete
    A 159 3 10 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 159 3 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L anterior half
    A 159 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R complete
    A 159 3 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 L complete oxide staining
    A 160 3 4 Microtus gregalis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 160 3 1 Myodes glareolus upper M2 L complete
    A 160 3 6 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R nearly complete
    A 160 3 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L complete
    A 160 3 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M2 L complete
    A 160 3 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 L complete
    A 160 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 R complete
    A 160 3 5 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L nearly complete oxide staining
    A 160 3 8 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 160 3 7 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 160 3 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete; nearly complete
    A 163 3 2 Microtus gregalis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 163 3 3 Microtus gregalis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 163 3 2 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 163 3 1 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 163 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L posterior half oxide staining
    A 163 3 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 163 3 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 L nearly complete
    A 163 3 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 R complete
    A 163 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M3 R complete
    A 163 3 6 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L complete
    A 163 3 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R complete
    A 163 3 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M2 L nearly complete
    A 163 3 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 L complete
    A 163 3 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 R complete
    A 163 3 1 Neomys fodiens lower M2 L complete articulates with lower M1 and mandible
    A 163 3 1 Neomys fodiens lower M1 L complete articulates with lower M2 and mandible
    A 163 3 1 Neomys fodiens mandible L complete articulates with lower M1 and M2
    A 163 3 10 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L posterior half
    A 163 3 8 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 163 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 R complete
    A 163 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L complete
    A 163 3 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete oxide staining
    A 163 3 3 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 163 3 5 Microtus gregalis lower M1 L complete oxide staining
    A 184 3 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 184 3 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 184 3 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus small tooth fragment NA 3 triangles
    A 184 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L nearly complete
    A 186 3 1 Chionomys nivalis bacculum NA complete
    A 186 3 2 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 186 3 3 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete
    A 186 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L complete
    A 186 3 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L complete
    A 189 3 9 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 189 3 11 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 189 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 L complete oxide staining
    A 189 3 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 L complete
    A 189 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R nearly complete
    A 189 3 3 Microtus gregalis lower M1 L complete
    A 189 3 1 Microtus gregalis lower M1 R complete oxide staining
    A 191 3 1 Chionomys nivalis lower M1 L complete
    A 191 3 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L complete
    A 191 3 5 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 191 3 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 R complete
    A 191 3 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M3 R complete
    A 191 3 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 R complete
    A 191 3 2 Microtus gregalis lower M1 L complete
    A 220 4 12 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 220 4 7 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R anterior half oxide staining
    A 220 4 5 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 L complete
    A 220 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 R nearly complete
    A 220 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M3 L complete
    A 220 4 8 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L complete
    A 220 4 11 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R complete oxide staining
    A 220 4 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M2 L nearly complete
    A 220 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 L complete
    A 220 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 R complete
    A 220 4 7 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 220 4 9 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete; nearly complete
    A 223 4 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L complete; nearly complete
    A 223 4 8 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 223 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L posterior half
    A 223 4 9 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 223 4 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 L complete
    A 223 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M3 R complete
    A 223 4 6 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L complete
    A 223 4 7 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R complete
    A 223 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M2 L nearly complete
    A 223 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M2 R complete
    A 223 4 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 R complete
    A 223 4 6 Microtus gregalis lower M1 L complete
    A 223 4 5 Microtus gregalis lower M1 R complete
    A 224 4 1 Talpa europaea humerus R complete
    A 224 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 224 4 5 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 224 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L complete
    A 224 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R complete
    A 224 4 3 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 224 4 3 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete
    A 228 4 3 Microtus gregalis lower M1 L complete
    A 228 4 1 Glis glis upper M2 L crown complete, roots broken oxide staining
    A 228 4 5 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L complete
    A 228 4 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete
    A 228 4 12 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 228 4 14 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 228 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 L complete
    A 228 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 R complete
    A 228 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M3 L complete
    A 228 4 6 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R complete
    A 228 4 8 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L complete
    A 228 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M2 L complete
    A 228 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M2 R nearly complete
    A 228 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 L complete
    A 228 4 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R posterior half
    A 249 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 L complete oxide staining
    A 249 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 R complete
    A 249 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M2 L nearly complete
    A 249 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L nearly complete
    A 249 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R complete
    A 249 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M3 L complete
    A 249 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M3 R complete
    A 249 4 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 L nearly complete
    A 249 4 5 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 R complete
    A 249 4 7 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 249 4 11 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 249 4 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L complete oxide staining
    A 249 4 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete
    A 251 4 3 Microtus gregalis lower M1 L complete
    A 251 4 7 Microtus gregalis lower M1 R complete
    A 251 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 251 4 5 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 251 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 R complete
    A 251 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R nearly complete
    A 251 4 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L complete
    A 252 4 1 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L complete
    A 252 4 6 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 252 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L anterior half
    A 252 4 8 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 252 4 9 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 257 4 1 Chionomys nivalis lower M1 R complete
    A 257 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R anterior half
    A 257 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 257 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L complete
    A 257 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R complete
    A 257 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L complete
    A 257 4 2 Microtus gregalis lower M1 L complete
    A 257 4 3 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 299 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 L nearly complete
    A 299 4 1 Soricinae lower M2 L nearly complete
    A 299 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M3 R complete
    A 299 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete oxide staining
    A 299 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L complete
    A 299 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 L complete
    A 299 4 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 R complete
    A 300 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 300 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 L complete
    A 300 4 1 Microtus agrestis upper M2 R complete
    A 300 4 3 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 300 4 2 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete
    A 304 4 9 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 304 4 12 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 304 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R posterior half
    A 304 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R anterior half oxide staining
    A 304 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 L complete
    A 304 4 5 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 R complete
    A 304 4 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M3 L complete
    A 304 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M3 R complete
    A 304 4 7 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L nearly complete
    A 304 4 10 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R nearly complete
    A 304 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M2 L complete articulates with maxilla and upper M3
    A 304 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 L complete articulates with maxilla and upper M2
    A 304 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus maxilla (upper jaw bone) L only tooth row articulates with upper M2 and M3
    A 304 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M2 L complete
    A 304 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M2 R nearly complete
    A 304 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 L complete
    A 304 4 4 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 R complete
    A 304 4 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 304 4 7 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 304 4 6 Microtus gregalis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 304 4 6 Microtus gregalis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 305 4 6 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 R complete
    A 305 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M1 L posterior half
    A 305 4 1 Dicrostonyx torquatus lower M2 R nearly complete
    A 305 4 2 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 L complete
    A 305 4 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M1 R nearly complete
    A 305 4 3 Dicrostonyx torquatus upper M3 L complete
    A 305 4 2 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 L nearly complete
    A 305 4 4 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R nearly complete
    A 305 4 1 Microtus arvalis/agrestis lower M1 R complete articulates with mandible
    A 305 4 1 Microtus arvalis/agrestis mandible R nearly complete articulates with lower M1