||315,000 years ago to present
||Starting in Africa, then expanding around the world
||Cro-Magnon individuals, discovered 1868 in Dordogne, France. Otzi the Ice Man, discovered 1991 in the Alps between Austria and Italy. Kennewick man, discovered 1996 in Washington state.
||1400 cc average
||Extremely small with short cusps.
||An extremely globular brain case and gracile features throughout the cranium. The mandibular symphysis forms a chin at the anterior-most point.
||Gracile skeleton adapted for efficient bipedal locomotion at the expense of the muscular strength of most other large primates.
||Extremely extensive and varied culture with many spoken and written languages. Art is ubiquitous. Technology is broad in complexity and impact on the environment.
||The only living hominin. Chimpanzees and bonobos are the closest living relatives.