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Chapter 3: Doing Fieldwork- Methods in Cultural Anthropology

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    Remix Authors

    Vanessa Martínez, Holyoke Community College,

    Demetrios Brellas, Framingham State University,

    Original Author:

    Katie Nelson, Inver Hills Community College,

    Learning Objectives
    • Understand what makes ethnography unique compared to other methods of gathering data about human beings
    • Explain how traditional approaches to ethnographic fieldwork contrast with contemporary ones
    • Understand the role of participant observation in anthropological fieldwork
    • Discuss the ethical considerations of ethnographic fieldwork
    • Summarize how anthropologists use their data to tell meaningful stories about culture?

    3.1 What Exactly Is Anthropological Fieldwork?

    Fieldwork can take many forms depending on the perspective you are using and the “field(s)” you are visiting. The “field” can be anywhere the people are—a village in highland Papua, New Guinea or a supermarket in downtown Minneapolis. Just as marine biologists spend time in the ocean to learn about the behavior of marine animals and geologists travel to a mountain range to observe rock formations, anthropologists go to places where people are to learn about the research questions they are asking.

    To get a basic understanding of what fieldwork can look like, we want you to watch Doing Anthropology, a short 8 minute film where Stefan Helmreich, Erica James, and Heather Paxson, three members of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Anthropology Department, talk about their current work and the process of doing fieldwork. This film will provide you with an introductory understanding of some of the types of fieldwork done by cultural anthropologists and their importance for gaining an in-depth perspective on the research.

    Fieldwork is the most important method by which cultural anthropologists gather data to answer their research questions. While interacting on a daily basis with a group of people, cultural anthropologists document their observations and perceptions and adjust the focus of their research as needed. They typically spend a few months to a few years living among the people they are studying.

    Katie Nelson’s Story of Anthropological Fieldwork

    My (Katie’s) first experience with fieldwork as a student anthropologist took place in a small indigenous community in northeastern Brazil studying the Jenipapo-Kanindé of Lagoa Encantada (Enchanted Lake). I had planned to conduct an independent research project on land tenure among members of the indige- nous tribe and had gotten permission to spend several months with the community. My Brazilian host family arranged for a relative to drive me to the rural community on the back of his motorcycle. After several hours navigating a series of bumpy roads in blazing equatorial heat, I was relieved to arrive at the edge of the reservation. He cut the motor and I removed my heavy backpack from my tired, sweaty back. Upon hearing us arrive, first children and then adults slowly and shyly began to approach us. I greeted the curious onlookers and briefly explained who I was. As a group of children ran to fetch the cacique (the chief/political leader), I began to explain my research agenda to several of the men who had gathered. I mentioned that I was interested in learning about how the tribe negotiated land use rights without any private land ownership. After hearing me use the colloquial term “índio” (Indian), a man who turned out to be the cacique’s cousin came forward and said to me, “Well, your work is going to be difficult because there are no Indians here; we are only Brazilians.” Then, abruptly, another man angrily replied to him, stating firmly that, in fact, they were Indians because the community was on an Indian reservation and the Brazilian government had recognized them as an indigenous tribe. A few women then entered the rapid-fire discussion. I took a step back, surprised by the intensity of my first interaction in the community. The debate subsided once the cacique arrived, but it left a strong impression in my mind. Eventually, I discarded my original research plan to focus instead on this disagreement within the community about who they were and were not. In anthropology, this type of conflict in beliefs is known as contested identity.

    Figure 3.1: Author Katie Nelson (center) with her Brazilian Host Family, 2001)

    I soon learned that many among the Jeni- papo-Kanindé did not embrace the Indian identity label. The tribe members were all monolingual Portuguese-speakers who long ago had lost their original language and many of their traditions. Beginning in the 1980s, several local researchers had conducted studies in the community and had concluded that the community had indigenous origins. Those researchers lobbied on the community’s behalf for official state and federal status as an indige- nous reservation, and in 1997 the Funai (Fundação Nacional do Índio or National Foundation for the Indian) visited the community and agreed to officially demarcate the land as an indigenous reservation.

    Figure 3.2: A young Jenipapo-Kanindé boy shows off his grass skirt prior to a community dance, 2001.

    More than 20 years later, the community is still waiting for that demarcation. Some in the community embraced indigenous status because it came with a number of benefits. The state (Ceará), using partial funding from Funai, built a new road to improve access to the community. The government also constructed an elementary school and a common well and installed new electric lines. Despite those gains, some members of the community did not embrace indigenous status because being considered Indian had a pejorative connotation in Brazil. Many felt that the label stigmatized them by associating them with a poor and marginalized class of Brazilians. Others resisted the label because of long-standing family and interpersonal conflicts in the community.

    3.1.1 How can we make the Strange Familiar and the Familiar Strange?

    The cultural anthropologist’s goal during fieldwork is to describe a group of people to others in a way that makes strange or unusual features of the culture seem familiar and familiar traits seem extraordinary. The point is to help people think in new ways about aspects of their own culture by comparing them with other cultures.

    Margaret Mead: A historical example of Defamiliarizing the Familiar

    The anthropologist Margaret Mead describes a famous example of defamiliarizing the familiar in her monograph Coming of Age in Samoa (1928). In 1925, Mead went to American Samoa, where she conducted ethnographic research on adolescent girls and their experiences with sexuality and growing up. Mead’s mentor, anthropologist Franz Boas, was a strong proponent of cultural determinism, the idea that one’s cultural upbringing and social environment, rather than one’s biology, primarily determine behavior. Boas encouraged Mead to travel to Samoa to study adolescent behavior there and to compare their culture and behavior with that of adolescents in the United States to lend support to his hypothesis. In the foreword of Coming of Age in Samoa, Boas described what he saw as the key insight of her research: “The results of her painstaking investigation confirm the suspicion long held by anthropologists that much of what we ascribe to human nature is no more than a reaction to the restraints put upon us by our civilization.”[1]

    Mead studied 25 young women in three villages in Samoa and found that the stress, anxiety, and tur- moil of American adolescence were not found among Samoan youth. Rather, young women in Samoa experienced a smooth transition to adulthood with relatively little stress or difficulty. She documented instances of socially accepted sexual experimentation, lack of sexual jealousy and rape, and a general sense of casualness that marked Samoan adolescence.

    Coming of Age in Samoa quickly became popular, launching Mead’s career as one of the most well-known anthropologists in the United States and perhaps the world. The book encouraged American readers to reconsider their own cultural assumptions about what adolescence in the United States should be like, particularly in terms of the sexual repression and turmoil that seemed to characterize the teenage experience in mid-twentieth century America. Through her analysis of the differences between Samoan and American society, Mead also persuasively called for changes in education and parenting for U.S. children and adolescents. Now, almost a 100 years later, there is still a need for these changes.

    A pop culture video example of making the familiar strange can be seen in the Morning Routine title sequence of the mid-2000s show Dexter, an American crime drama. This show tells the story of a vigilante serial killer who kills murderers who have escaped the punishment of the criminal justice system. What is most interesting to this story for me, Vanessa, as an anthropologist is how the producers of the show created the Morning Routine title sequence.

    See for Yourself:

    This video highlights Dexter’s morning routine as both normal and unfamiliar. Like Horace Miner’s Body Ritual of the Nacirema, this video pushes the viewer to both see themselves in Dexter and feel a bit uneasy because what is a normal morning is shown with images that can be viewed in multiple ways.

    Quick Reading Check: What does it mean to make the familiar strange and/or defamiliarize the familiar? Provide your own example.

    3.1.2 Emic versus Etic Perspectives: How are both important to Anthropological Fieldwork?

    When anthropologists conduct fieldwork, they gather data. An important tool for gathering anthropological data is ethnography—the in-depth study of everyday practices and lives of a people. Ethnography produces a detailed description of the studied group at a particular time and location, also known as a “thick description,” a term coined by anthropologist Clifford Geertz in his 1973 book The Interpretation of Cultures to describe this type of research and writing. A thick description explains not only the behavior or cultural event in question but also the context in which it occurs and anthropological interpretations of it. Such descriptions help readers better understand the internal logic of why people in a culture behave as they do and why the behaviors are meaningful to them. This is important because understanding the attitudes, perspectives, and motivations of cultural insiders is at the heart of anthropology.

    Ethnographers gather data from many different sources. One source is the anthropologist’s own observations and thoughts. Ethnographers keep field notebooks that document their ideas and reflections as well as what they do and observe when participating in activities with the people they are studying, a research technique known as participant observation. Other sources of data include informal conversations and more-formal interviews that are recorded and transcribed. They also collect documents such as letters, photographs, artifacts, public records, books, and reports.

    Different types of data produce different kinds of ethnographic descriptions, which also vary in terms of perspective—from the perspective of the studied culture (emic) or from the perspective of the observer (etic). Emic perspectives refer to descriptions of behaviors and beliefs in terms that are meaningful to people who belong to a specific culture, e.g., how people perceive and categorize their culture and experiences, why people believe they do what they do, how they imagine and explain things. To uncover emic perspectives, ethnographers talk to people, observe what they do, and participate in their daily activities with them. Emic perspectives are essential for anthropologists’ efforts to obtain a detailed understanding of a culture and to avoid interpreting others through their own cultural beliefs. Etic perspectives refer to explanations for behavior by an outside observer in ways that are meaningful to the observer. For an anthropologist, etic descriptions typically arise from conversations between the ethnographer and the anthropological community. These explanations tend to be based in science and are informed by historical, political, and economic studies and other types of research.

    The etic approach acknowledges that members of a culture are unlikely to view the things they do as noteworthy or unusual. They cannot easily stand back and view their own behavior objectively or from another perspective. For example, you may have never thought twice about the way you brush your teeth and the practice of going to the dentist or how you experienced your teenage years. For you, these parts of your culture are so normal and “natural” you probably would never consider questioning them. An emic lens gives us an alternative perspective that is essential when constructing a comprehensive view of a people.

    Most often, ethnographers include both emic and etic perspectives in their research and writing. They first uncover a studied people’s understanding of what they do and why and then develop additional explanations for the behavior based on anthropological theory and analysis. Both perspectives are important, and it can be challenging to move back and forth between the two. Nevertheless, that is exactly what good ethnographers must do.

    Quick Reading Check: What is anthropological fieldwork and where can it be done?

    3.2 Traditional Ethnographic Approaches

    3.2.1 Early Armchair Anthropology

    Before ethnography was a fully developed research method, anthropologists in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries used techniques that were much less reliable to gather data about people throughout the world. From the comfort of their homes and library armchairs, early scholars collected others’ travel accounts and used them to come to conclusions about far-flung cultures and peoples. The reports typically came from missionaries, colonists, adventurers, and business travelers and were often incomplete, inaccurate, and/or misleading, exaggerated or omitted important information, and romanticized the culture.

    Early scholars such as Wilhelm Schmidt and Sir E. B. Tylor sifted through artifacts and stories brought back by travelers or missionaries and selected the ones that best fit their frequently preconceived ideas about the peoples involved. By relying on this flawed data, they often drew inaccurate or even racist conclusions. They had no way of knowing how accurate the information was and no way to understand the full context in which it was gathered.

    The work of Sir James Frazer (1854–1941) provides a good example of the problems associated with such anthropological endeavors. Frazer was a Scottish social anthropologist who was interested in myths and religions around the world. He read historical documents and religious texts found in libraries and book collections. He also sent questionnaires to missionaries and colonists in various parts of the world asking them about the people with whom they were in contact. He then used the information to draw sweeping conclusions about human belief systems. In his most famous book, The Golden Bough, he described similarities and differences in magical and religious practices around the world and concluded that human beliefs progressed through three stages: from primitive magic to religion and from religion to science. This theory implied that some people were less evolved and more primitive than others. Of course, contemporary anthropologists do not view any people as less evolved than another. Instead, anthropologists today seek to uncover the historical, political, and cultural reasons behind peoples’ behaviors rather than assuming that one culture or society is more advanced than another.

    The main problem with Frazer’s conclusion can be traced back to the fact that he did not do any research himself and none of the information he relied on was collected by an anthropologist. He never spent time with the people he was researching. He never observed the religious ceremonies he wrote about and certainly never participated in them. Had he done so, he might have been able to appreciate that all human groups at the time (and now) were equally pragmatic, thoughtful, intelligent, logical, and “evolved.” He might also have appreciated the fact that how and why the information is gathered affects the quality of the information. For instance, if a colonial administrator offered to pay people for their stories, some of the storytellers might have exaggerated or even made up stories for financial gain. If a Christian missionary asked recently converted parishioners to describe their religious practices, they likely would have omitted non-Christian practices and beliefs to avoid disapproval and maintain their positions in the church. A male traveler who attempted to document rite-of-passage traditions in a culture that prohibited men from asking such questions of women would generate data that could erroneously suggest that women did not participate in such activities. All of these examples illustrate the pitfalls of armchair anthropology.

    3.2.2 Out of the Armchair: Into the Field

    Fortunately, the reign of armchair anthropology was brief. Around the turn of the twentieth century, anthropologists trained in the natural sciences began to reimagine what a science of humanity should look like and how social scientists ought to go about studying cultural groups. Some of those anthropologists insisted that one should at least spend significant time actually observing and talking to the people studied. Early ethnographers such as Franz Boas and Alfred Cort Haddon typically traveled to the remote locations where the people in question lived and spent a few weeks to a few months there. They sought out a local Western host who was familiar with the people and the area (such as a colonial official, missionary, or businessman) and found accommodations through them. Although they did at times venture into the community without a guide, they generally did not spend significant time with the local people. Thus, their observations were primarily conducted from the relative comfort and safety of an armchair.

    Polish anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski’s (1884–1942) pioneering method of participant observation fundamentally changed the relationship between ethnographers and the people under study. In 1914, he traveled to the Trobriand Islands and ended up spending nearly four years conducting fieldwork among the people there. In the process, he developed a rigorous set of detailed ethnographic techniques he viewed as best-suited to gathering accurate and comprehensive ethnographic data. One of the hallmarks of his method was that it required the researcher to get off the armchair to interact with and even live among the natives.

    In a well-known book about his research, Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922), Malinowski described his research techniques and the role they played in his analysis of the Kula ceremony, an exchange of coral armbands and trinkets among members of the social elite. He concluded that the ceremonies were at the center of Trobriand life and represented the culmination of an elaborate multi-year venture called the Kula Ring that involved dangerous expeditions and careful planning. Ultimately, the key to his discovering the importance of the ceremony was that he not only observed the Kula Ring but also participated in it. This technique of participant observation is central to anthropological research today. Malinowski did more than just observe people from afar; he actively interacted with them and participated in their daily activities. And unlike early anthropologists who worked through translators, Malinowski learned the native language, which allowed him to immerse himself in the culture. He carefully documented all of his observations and thoughts. Malinowski’s techniques are now central components of ethnographic fieldwork.

    3.2.3 Salvage Ethnography

    Despite Malinowski’s tremendous contributions to ethnography and anthropology generally, he was nevertheless a man of his time. A common view in the first half of the twentieth century was that many “primitive” cultures were quickly disappearing and features of those cultures needed to be preserved (salvaged) before they were lost. Anthropologists such as Malinowski, Franz Boas, and many of their students sought to document, photograph, and otherwise preserve cultural traditions in “dying” cultures in groups such as Native Americans and other traditional societies experiencing rapid change due to modernization, dislocation, and contact with outside groups. They also collected cultural artifacts, removing property from the communities and placing it in museums and private collections. This is what is known as salvage ethnography, the process of documenting and writing stories about people who were thought to be near extinction.

    black and white photo of Bronislaw Malinowski (center) with Trobriand Islanders.
    Figure 3.3: Bronislaw Malinowski (center) with Trobriand Islanders circa 1918

    Others who were not formally trained in the sciences or in anthropology also participated in salvage activities. Photographers, artists, and documentarians have likewise attempted to capture and preserve traditional indigenous life in paintings and photographs. For instance, in his “documentary” film Nanook of the North (1922), Robery Flaherty filmed the life of an Inuit man named Nanook and his family in the Canadian Arctic. In an effort to preserve on film what many believed was a traditional way of life soon to be lost, Flaherty took considerable artistic license to represent the culture as he imagined it was in the past, including staging certain scenes and asking the Inuit men to use spears instead of rifles to make the film seem more “authentic.”

    Seeing these people as living fossils is rooted in western ethnocentrism. This view is born from an inherently racist desire to “civilize the savage”. It assumes that non-western cultures have only two choices – to evolve (ie “westernize) or go extinct.

    Today, more anthropologists are involved in unearthing the racist roots of the discipline. Anthropology as a discipline is invested in highlighting that human cultures constantly change as people respond to social, political, economic, and other external and internal influences. In contrast to a historical white supremacist approach, today’s anthropologists work to show that there is no moment when a culture is more authentic, more civilized, or more primitive. They acknowledge that culture is fluid and cannot be treated as isolated in time and space. Just as we should not portray people as primitive vestiges of an earlier stage of human development, we also should not romanticize a culture or idealize another’s suffering as more authentic or natural.

    Quick Reading Check: Cultures around the world are constantly changing/adapting to new influences. Provide one example of culture change that is historical and one that is relatively new.

    3.2.4 A Holistic Approach to Fieldwork

    In the throes of salvage ethnography, anthropologists in the first half of the twentieth century actively documented anything and everything they could about the cultures they viewed as endangered. They collected artifacts, excavated ancient sites, wrote dictionaries of non-literate languages, and documented cultural traditions, stories, and beliefs. In the United States, those efforts developed into what is known today as the four-field approach or simply as general anthropology. This approach integrates multiple scientific and humanistic perspectives into a single comprehensive discipline composed of cultural, archaeological, biological/physical, and linguistic anthropology.

    A hallmark of the four-field approach is its holistic perspective: anthropologists are interested in studying everything that makes us human. Thus, they use multiple approaches to understanding humans throughout time and throughout the world. They also acknowledge that to understand people fully one cannot look solely at biology, culture, history, or language; rather, all of those things must be considered.

    The interrelationships between the four subfields of anthropology are important for many anthropologists today. Anthropologist Jason De León’s highly multidisciplinary work, “The Land of Open Graves” for example, combines forensic anthropology, archaeology, ethnography, (using a four-field perspective) to examine the ordeals faced by migrants along the United States-Mexico border. His research and fieldwork examine both the grueling life experiences of undocumented migrants as well as the unclaimed and unidentified remains of those poor souls for whom this journey claimed their lives. Through a combination of forensic science, ethnography, and investigation he can finally tell their story and makes us question the structural violence of American immigration policies here and abroad.

    In another example, Peter Gordon spent many years living among the Pirahã tribe of Brazil learning their language and culture. He noted that the Pirahã have only three words for numbers: one, two, and many. He also observed that they found it difficult to remember quantities and numbers beyond three even after learning the Portuguese words for such numbers.[2]

    Watch Pirahã Numerical Terms – In this short film, linguist Daniel Everett illustrates Pirahã numerical terms.

    Although some scholars have criticized Gordon’s conclusions as overly deterministic, their work certainly illustrates the presence of a relationship between language and thought and between cultural and biological influences. Words may not force people to think a particular way, but they can influence our thought processes and how we view the world around us. The holistic perspective of anthropology helps us to appreciate that our culture, language, and physical and cognitive capacities for language are interrelated in complex ways.

    3.3 Ethnography Today: Anthropology’s Distinctive Research Strategy

    Ethnography is cultural anthropology’s distinctive research strategy. It was originally developed by anthropologists to study small-scale, relatively isolated cultural groups. Typically, those groups had relatively simple economies and technologies and limited access to larger, more technologically advanced societies. Early ethnographers sought to understand the entirety of a particular culture. They spent months to years living in the community, and in that time, they documented in great detail every dimension of people’s lives, including their language, subsistence strategies, political systems, formation of families and marriages, and religious beliefs. This was important because it helped researchers appreciate the interconnectedness of all dimensions of social life. The key to the success of this ethnographic approach was not only to spend considerable time observing people in their home settings engaged in day-to-day activities but also to participate in those activities. Participation informed an emic perspective of the culture, something that had been missing in earlier social science research.

    Because of how useful the ethnographic research strategy is in developing an emic perspective, it has been adopted by many other disciplines including sociology, education, psychology, and political science. Education researchers, for example, use ethnography to study children in classrooms to identify their learning strategies and how they understand and make sense of learning experiences. Sociologists use ethnography to study emerging social movements and how participants in such movements stay motivated and connected despite their sometimes-conflicting goals.

    Reflection: Can you describe in 4-5 sentences what makes anthropological fieldwork unique among the social sciences?

    3.3.1 New Sites for Ethnographic Fieldwork

    Like the cultures and peoples studied, anthropology and ethnography are evolving. Field sites for ethnographic research are no longer exclusively located in far-flung, isolated, non-industrialized societies. Increasingly, anthropologists are conducting ethnographic research in complex, technologically advanced societies such as the United States and in urban environments elsewhere in the world. For instance, Katie Nelson’s doctoral research took place in the United States. Nelson studied identity formation among undocumented Mexican immigrant college students in Minnesota. Because some of her informants were living in Mexico when her fieldwork ended, she also traveled to Veracruz, Mexico, and spent time conducting research there. Often, anthropologists who study migration, diasporas, and people in motion must conduct research in multiple locations. This is known as multi-sited ethnography, ethnographic research done and recorded in multiple field sites.

    Anthropologists use ethnography to study people wherever they are and however they interact with others. Think of the many ways you ordinarily interact with your friends, family, professors, and boss. Is it all face-to-face communication or do you sometimes use text messages to chat with your friends? Do you also sometimes email your professor to ask for clarification on an assignment and then call your boss to discuss your schedule? Do you share funny videos with others on TikTok and then later make a zoom call to a relative? Do you belong to an online group that meets for breastfeeding support, mutual aid, or to share resources? These new technological “sites” of human interaction are fascinating to many ethnographers and have expanded the definition of fieldwork. These sites can also make research and the ethical considerations of privacy more challenging.

    Quick Reading Check: Provide at least 2 examples of “new sites” where anthropologists do their research.

    3.3.2 What is Problem-Oriented Research?

    In the early years, ethnographers were interested in exploring the entirety of a culture. Taking an inductive approach, they generally were not concerned about arriving with a relatively narrow predefined research topic. Instead, the goal was to explore the people, their culture, and their homelands and what had previously been written about them. The focus of the study was allowed to emerge gradually during their time in the field. Often, this approach to ethnography resulted in rather general ethnographic descriptions.

    Most anthropologists these days are increasingly taking a more deductive approach to ethnographic research. Rather than arriving at the field site with only general ideas about the goals of the study, they tend to select a particular problem before arriving and then let that problem guide their research. For example, Katie Nelson was interested in how undocumented Mexican immigrant youth in Minnesota formed a sense of identity while living in a society that used a variety of dehumanizing labels such as illegal and alien to refer to them. That was her research “problem,” and it oriented and guided her study from beginning to end. She did not document every dimension of her informants’ lives; instead, she focused on the things most closely related to her research problem.

    In my case, Vanessa, I spent three years (2008-2011) working with community agencies and community organizers on health equity issues in Springfield, Massachusetts before finalizing my research question about how to build more sustainable community-research partnerships. Like Nelson, I did not record every dimension of my informants’ lives and instead focused on the question that came out of my time in the field. This combined approach to anthropological research is not typical because of how long it can take, but I did not feel right about going into the field with a preset question.

    3.3.3 How do anthropologists use Quantitative Methods in their research?

    Increasingly, cultural anthropologists are using quantitative research methods to complement qualitative approaches. Qualitative research in anthropology aims to comprehensively describe human behavior and the contexts in which it occurs while quantitative research seeks patterns in numerical data that can explain aspects of human behavior. Quantitative patterns can be gleaned from statistical analyses, maps, charts, graphs, and textual descriptions. Surveys are a common quantitative technique that usually involves closed-ended questions in which respondents select their responses from a list of predefined choices such as their degree of agreement or disagreement, multiple-choice answers, and rankings of items. While surveys usually lack the sort of contextual detail associated with qualitative research, they tend to be relatively easy to code numerically and, as a result, can be easier to analyze than qualitative data. Surveys are also useful for gathering specific data points within a large population, something that is challenging to do with many qualitative techniques.

    Anthropological nutritional analysis is an area of research that commonly relies on collecting quantitative data. Nutritional anthropologists explore how factors such as culture, the environment, and economic and political systems interplay to impact human health and nutrition. They may count the calories people consume and expend, document patterns of food consumption, measure body weight and body mass, and test for the presence of parasite infections or nutritional deficiencies. In her ethnography Dancing Skeletons: Life and Death in West Africa (1993), Katherine Dettwyler described how she conducted nutritional research in Mali, which involved weighing, measuring, and testing her research subjects to collect a variety of quantitative data to help her understand the causes and consequences of child malnutrition.

    Quick Reading Check: Provide one example of a quantitative method and one example of a qualitative method.

    3.3.4 How do anthropologists use Mixed Methods in their research?

    In recent years, anthropologists have begun to combine ethnography with other types of research methods. These mixed-method approaches integrate qualitative and quantitative evidence to provide a more comprehensive analysis. For instance, anthropologists can combine ethnographic data with questionnaires, statistical data, and media analysis. Anthropologist Leo Chavez used mixed methods to conduct the research for his book The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens, and the Nation (2008). He started with a problem: how has citizenship been discussed as an identity marker in the mainstream media in the United States, especially among those labeled as Latinos. He then looked for a variety of types of data and relied on ethnographic case studies and on quantitative data from surveys and questionnaires. Chavez also analyzed a series of visual images from photographs, magazine covers, and cartoons that depicted Latinos to explore how they are represented in the American mainstream.

    Mixed methods can be particularly useful when conducting problem-oriented research on complex, technologically advanced societies such as the United States. Detailed statistical and quantitative data are often available for those types of societies. Additionally, the general population is usually literate and somewhat comfortable with the idea of filling out a questionnaire.

    Quick Reading Check: What does it mean to do “mixed methods” in anthropology?

    3.4 Ethnographic Techniques and Perspectives

    3.4.1 What is Cultural Relativism and Ethnocentrism?

    The guiding philosophy of modern anthropology is cultural relativism—the idea that we should seek to understand another person’s beliefs and behaviors from the perspective of their culture rather than our own. Anthropologists do not judge other cultures based on their values nor view other cultural ways of doing things as inferior. Instead, anthropologists seek to understand people’s beliefs within the system they have for explaining things.

    Cultural relativism is an important methodological consideration when conducting research. In the field, anthropologists must temporarily suspend their own value, moral, and esthetic judgments and seek to understand and respect the values, morals, and esthetics of the other culture on their terms. This can be a challenging task, particularly when a culture is significantly different from the one in which they were raised.

    During my first field experience in Brazil, I learned firsthand how challenging cultural relativism could be. Preferences for physical proximity and comfort talking about one’s body are among the first differences likely to be noticed by U.S. visitors to Brazil. Compared to Americans, Brazilians generally are much more comfortable standing close, touching, holding hands, and even smelling one another and often discussing each other’s bodies. Children and adults commonly refer to each other using playful nick- names that refer to their body size, body shape, or skin color. Neighbors and even strangers frequently stopped me on the street to comment on the color of my skin (It concerned some as being overly pale or pink—Was I ill? Was I sunburned?), the texture of my hair (How did I get it so smooth? Did I straighten my hair?), and my body size and shape (“You have a nice bust, but if you lost a little weight around the middle you would be even more attractive!”).

    During my first few months in Brazil, I had to remind myself constantly that these comments were not rude, disrespectful, or inappropriate as I would have perceived them to be in the United States. On the contrary, it was one of the ways that people showed affection toward me. From a culturally relativistic perspective, the comments demonstrated that they cared about me, were concerned with my well-being, and wanted me to be part of the community. Had I not taken a culturally relativistic view at the outset and instead judged the actions based on my cultural perspective, I would have been continually frustrated and likely would have confused and offended people in the community. And offending your informants and the rest of the community certainly is not conducive to completing high-quality ethnography! Had I not fully understood the importance of body contact and physical proximity in communication in Brazil, I would have missed an important component of the culture.

    Trying to perform cultural relativism is difficult even for anthropologists. This is because it is our tendency to try to understand our experience by using cultural experiences we have had previously. The challenge with this is that it can lead to Another perspective that has been rejected by anthropologists is ethnocentrism, —the tendency to view one’s own culture as most important and correct and as a stick by which to measure all other cultures. People who are ethnocentric view their own cultures as central and normal and reject all other cultures as inferior and morally suspect. As it turns out, many people and cultures are ethnocentric to some degree; ethnocentrism is a common human experience. Why do we respond the way we do? Why do we behave the way we do? Why do we believe what we believe? Most people find these kinds of questions difficult to answer. Often the answer is simply “because that is how it is done.” What is missing from this idea of “that’s just the way it is done” is the fact that what, how, and why things are done are culturally determined, ie. they believe what they believe because that is what one normally believes in their culture and doing things any other way seems wrong to their culture.

    Ethnocentrism is not a useful perspective in contexts in which people from different cultural backgrounds come into close contact with one another, as is the case in many cities and communities throughout the world. People increasingly find that they must adopt culturally relativistic perspectives in governing communities and as a guide for their interactions with members of the community. This is also helpful when thinking about our global world. If we want to interact as governments in conversation with other governments, we want to try to understand each other even if we do not agree with each other. For anthropologists in the field, cultural relativism is especially important. We must set aside our innate ethnocentrisms and let cultural relativism guide our inquiries and interactions with others so that our observations are not biased. Cultural relativism is, therefore, at the core of the discipline of anthropology.

    3.4.2 Can we really be objective? Objectivity and Activist Anthropology?

    Despite the importance of cultural relativism, it is not always possible and at times is inappropriate to maintain complete objectivity in the field. Researchers may encounter cultural practices that are an affront to strongly held moral values or that violate the human rights of a segment of a population. In other cases, they may be conducting research in part to advocate for a particular issue or for the rights of a marginalized group.

    Take, for example, the practice of female genital cutting (FGC), also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), a practice that is common in various regions of the world, especially in parts of Africa and the Middle East. Such practices involving modification of female genitals for non-medical and cultural reasons range from clitoridectomy (partial or full removal of the clitoris) to infibulation, which involves removal of the clitoris and the inner and outer labia and suturing to narrow the vaginal opening, leaving only a small hole for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid. Anthropologists working in regions where such practices are common often, understandably, have a strong negative opinion, viewing the practice as unnecessary medically and posing a risk of serious infection, infertility, and complications from childbirth. They may also be opposed to it because they feel that it violates the right of women to experience sexual pleasure, something they likely view as a fundamental human right. Should anthropologists intervene to prevent girls and women from being subjected to this practice?

    Anthropologist Janice Boddy studied FGC/FGM in rural northern Sudan and sought to explain it from a culturally relativistic perspective. She found that the practice persists, in part, because it is believed to preserve a woman’s chastity and curb her sexual desire, making her less likely to have affairs once she is married. Boddy’s research showed how the practice makes sense in the context of a culture in which a woman’s sexual conduct is a symbol of her family’s honor, which is important culturally.[3]

    Boddy’s relativistic explanation helps make the practice comprehensible and allows cultural outsiders to understand how it is internally culturally coherent. But the question remains. Once anthropologists understand why people practice FGC/FGM, should they accept it? Because they uncover the cultural meaning of a practice, must they maintain a neutral stance or should they fight a practice viewed as an injustice? How does an anthropologist know what is right?

    Unfortunately, answers to these questions are rarely simple, and anthropologists, as a group, do not always agree on an appropriate professional stance and responsibility. Nevertheless, examining practices such as FGC/FGM can help us understand the debate over objectivity versus “activism” in anthropology more clearly. Some anthropologists feel that striving for objectivity in ethnography is paramount. That even if objectivity cannot be completely achieved, anthropologists’ ethnography should be free from as much subjective opinion as possible. Others take the opposite stance and produce anthropological research and writing as a means of fighting for equality and justice for disempowered or voiceless groups. The debate over how much (if any) activism is acceptable is ongoing. What is clear is that anthropologists are continuing to grapple with the contentious relationship between objectivity and activism in ethnographic research.

    Quick Reading Check: Explain the tension between objectivity and activism in anthropology?

    3.4.3 Is Anthropology a Science, a Social Science or One of the Humanities?

    In truth, anthropology is all of these or just one depending on the type of research being done. Anthropology is all of these because studying humans requires all of these approaches to get a clear and comprehensive understanding of “us”. Anthropologists have described their field as the most humanistic of the sciences and the most scientific of the humanities. Early anthropologists fought to legitimize anthropology as a robust scientific field of study. To do so, they borrowed methods and techniques from the physical sciences and applied them to anthropological inquiry. Indeed, anthropology today is categorized as a social science in most academic institutions in the United States alongside sociology, psychology, economics, and politi- cal science. However, in recent decades, many cultural anthropologists have distanced themselves from science-oriented research and embraced more-humanistic approaches, including symbolic and interpretive perspectives. Interpretive anthropology treats culture as a body of “texts” rather than attempting to test a hypothesis based on deductive or inductive reasoning. The texts present a particular picture from a particular subjective point of view. Interpretive anthropologists believe that it is not necessary (or even possible) to objectively interrogate a text. Rather, they study the texts to untangle the various webs of meaning embedded in them. Consequently, interpretive anthropologists include the context of their interpretations, their own perspectives and, importantly, how the research participants view themselves and the meanings they attribute to their lives.

    Anthropologists are unlikely to conclude that a single approach is best. Instead, anthropologists can apply any and all of the approaches that best suit their particular problem. Anthropology is unique among academic disciplines for the diversity of approaches used to conduct research and for the broad range of orientations that fall under its umbrella.

    3.4.4 What is the difference between Observation and Participant Observation?

    Of the various techniques and tools used to conduct ethnographic research, observation in general and participant observation in particular are among the most important. To some extent we all do observation. Do you ever people-watch at the airport? Ethnographers are trained to pay attention to everything happening around them when in the field—from routine daily activities such as cooking dinner for major events such as an annual religious celebration. They observe how people interact with each other, how the environment affects people, and how people affect the environment. It is essential for anthropologists to rigorously document their observations, usually by writing field notes and recording their feelings and perceptions in a personal journal or diary.

    As previously mentioned, participant observation involves ethnographers observing while they participate in activities with their informants. This technique is important because it allows the researcher to better understand why people do what they do from an emic perspective. Malinowski noted that participant observation is an important tool by which “to grasp the native’s point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world.”[4]

    To conduct participant observation, ethnographers must live with or spend considerable time with their informants to establish a strong rapport with them. Rapport is a sense of trust and a comfortable working relationship in which the informant and the ethnographer are at ease with each other and agreeable to working together.

    Participant Observation in the Maya Highlands – Katie Nelson

    Participant observation was an important part of my own research. In 2003, I spent six months living in two Mayan villages in highland Chiapas, Mexico. I was conducting ethnographic research on behalf of the Science Museum of Minnesota to document changes in huipil textile designs. Huipiles (pronounced “we-peel-ayes”) are a type of hand-woven blouse that Mayan women in the region weave and wear, and every town has its own style and designs. At a large city market, one can easily identify the town each weaver is from by the colors and designs of her huipiles. For hundreds of years, huipil designs changed very little. Then, starting around 1960, the designs and colors of huipiles in some of the towns began to change rapidly. I was interested in learning why some towns’ designs were changing more rapidly than other towns’ as well as in collecting examples of huipiles to supplement the museum’s existing collection.

    I spent time in two towns, Zinacantán and San Andrés Larráinzar. Zinacantán was located near the main city, San Cristóbal de las Casas. It received many tourists each year and had regularly established bus and van routes that locals used to travel to San Cristóbal to buy food and other goods. Some of the men in the town had worked in the United States and returned with money to build or improve their family homes and businesses. Other families were supported by remittances from relatives working in the United States or in other parts of Mexico. San Andrés, on the other hand, was relatively isolated and much further from San Cristóbal. Most families there relied on subsistence farming or intermittent agricultural labor and had limited access to tourism or to outside communities. San Andrés was also the site of a major indigenous revolt in the mid-1990s that resulted in greater autonomy, recognition, and rights for indigenous groups throughout Mexico. Politically and socially, it was a progressive community in many ways but remained conservative in others.

    I first asked people in Zinacantán why their huipil designs, motifs, and colors seemed to change almost every year. Many women said that they did not know. Others stated that weaving was easy and could be boring so they liked to make changes to keep the huipiles interesting and to keep weaving from getting dull. When I asked people in San Andrés what they thought about what the women in Zinacan- tán had said, the San Andrés women replied that “Yes, perhaps they do get bored easily. But we in San Andrés are superior weavers and we don’t need to change our designs.” Neither response seemed like the full story behind the difference.

    Though I spent hundreds of hours observing women preparing to weave, weaving, and selling their textiles to tourists, I did not truly understand what the women were telling me until I tried weaving myself. When I watched them, the process seemed so easy and simple. They attached strings of thread vertically to two ends of the back-strap looms. When weaving, they increased and decreased the ten- sion on the vertical threads by leaning backward and forward with the back strap and teased individual threads horizontally through the vertical threads to create the desired pattern. After each thread was placed, they pushed it down with great force using a smooth, flat wooden trowel. They did the entire process with great ease and fluidity. When I only watched and did not participate, I could believe the Zinacantán women when they told me weaving was easy.

    When I began to weave, it took me several days simply to learn how to sit correctly with a back-strap loom and achieve the appropriate tension. I failed repeatedly at setting up the loom with vertically strung threads and never got close to being able to create a design. Thus, I learned through participant observation that weaving is an exceptionally difficult task. Even expert weavers who had decades of experience sometimes made mistakes as half-finished weavings and rejected textiles littered many homes. Although the women appeared to be able to multitask while weaving (stoking the fire, calling after small children, cooking food), weaving still required a great deal of concentration to do well.

    Through participant observation, Katie Nelson was able to recognize that other factors likely drove the changes in their textiles. She ultimately concluded that the rate of change in huipil design in Zinacantán was likely related to the pace of cultural change broadly in the community resulting from interactions between its residents and tourists and relatively frequent travel to a more-urban environment. Participant observation was an important tool in her research and is central to most ethnographic studies today.

    3.4.5 Let’s Talk: Conversations and Interviews

    Another primary technique for gathering ethnographic data is simply talking with people—from casual, unstructured conversations about ordinary topics to formal scheduled interviews about a particular topic. An important element for successful conversations and interviews is establishing rapport, or trust, with informants. Sometimes, engaging in conversation is part of establishing that rapport. Ethnographers frequently use multiple forms of conversation and interviewing for a single research project based on their particular needs. They sometimes record the conversations and interviews with an audio recording device but more often they simply engage in the conversation and then later write down everything they recall about it. Conversations and interviews are an essential part of most ethnographic research designs because spoken communication is central to humans’ experiences.

    3.4.6 Let’s Take a Walk: Mapping your Space

    Another methodology that anthropologists sometimes use involves mapping our cultural landscape. Whether through drawing, google maps and earth, or through narrative, being able to share images and/or writing about the physical space of your research allows the reader to engage in a different way with the content. I, Vanessa Martinez, decided to create a written narrative of an environmental walk I took in Springfield, Massachusetts as part of my doctoral work to highlight the importance of physical space to my community health equity work.

    Walking through Springfield: Vanessa Martínez

    On July 19, 2011, I participated in an environmental and educational walk around the North End of Springfield, an area rife with structural barriers to positive health outcomes for its residents. The North End of Springfield is a “food desert” and one of the most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Massachusetts. Originally, the environmental and health coalition had planned a bike event that would allow community members and local leaders to identify the structural violence in the community, understand the history of Springfield’s poor health indicators, and discuss strategies for improving Springfield residents’ health outcomes. After learning about the event, I suggested to Betty Agin, my community collaborator, that the event could also be done as a walk, providing people without bikes the opportunity to participate. She thought it was a great idea and so she contacted the organizers who agreed to promote the event as a bike/walk health event. The day of the event, I arrived wearing workout clothes. I only note my clothing because Betty was dressed as she always was in her Sunday best, only changing her sneakers to walk.

    The organizers chose to start our journey at the Pioneer Valley Transit Authority diesel bus garage in the North End neighborhood. The North End may not have a toxic waste dump or a factory emitting smoke into the sky, but the diesel bus garage is a major contributor to air pollution which can pose a serious challenge to human health. Participating in this Springfield community event provided me with a new understanding of the dangers experienced by Springfield residents every day. These dangers are not only what we hear about Springfield in the news nearly every day, violence and poverty; but rather, these dangers stem from being pedestrians in a city after the creation of a highway that split the North End neighborhood in two. This is not unique to Springfield, in fact, many urban centers faced this during Urban Renewal of the 1960s and 70s. However, a consistent thread in the Urban Renewal story across urban America highlights that the newly created highway systems ensured that getting from neighborhood to neighborhood was difficult if not impossible. This remains true today where in some areas, people have to risk crossing railroad tracks or highway entrances in order to get to another neighborhood.

    While I walked around Springfield that day, the most prominent features that stood out to me were the elements of hope and community in an urban city that was rife with structural violence. I noticed the vertical ghetto across from the Springfield Riverwalk and Bike Path; this poor community could look across and see the bike path only a few yards away, but the highway divided the community from the river. The only way to access the river would be to walk miles across the city. I was so frustrated that I looked on in amazement searching for hope – we kept walking and I noticed that this same community had a small community garden that was tended to by adults and youth alike. Hope.

    When we reached the Gerena School, a community elementary located at 200 Birnie Avenue and built in 1972, our Springfield tour guide discussed the environmental problems experienced by school personnel, students, and community members. The school was built directly under Interstate 91 and adjacent to roadways, a railway, and industrial plant. An underground tunnel was created within Gerena’s property as “a passageway for pedestrians after the construction of Interstate 91 removed the original connecting streets between Memorial Square and Brightwood neighborhoods” (Santana 2012). Construction of the highway system severed the Connecticut River from the rest of the city, just as the railroad had done a century earlier. Recent community outcry over the school’s need for repairs has resulted in local government officials redirecting money for structural repairs. The school suffers from transportation-related indoor air exposures, flooding, moisture, mold, and filth resulting in an unhealthy environment for children. Currently, the EPA is conducting a Health Impact Assessment to determine changes needed to make the school safer and healthier. As we continued our walk past an industrial plant, I had to use my inhaler several times for my asthma.

    On our walk, Betty Agin, a Springfield based community organizer, introduced me to Zaida Luna, City Counselor for Ward 1, which includes the North End. Meeting a City Counselor who was committed to the community and showed her support at community events like these was very powerful. As our walk continued, our tour guide pointed out not only what we could see, but what was missing. We saw limited green spaces, barriers to reach the riverwalk, limited pools and family friendly spaces, and the lack of established walking and bike trails. I could not help but think about a framed art piece on my wall with a quote taken from Martin Luther King Jr’s speech “Beyond Vietnam”, an address delivered to the Clergy and Laymen Concerned about Vietnam on April 4, 1967, in New York City; “A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death”.

    I began to wonder about the future of the Gerena School, the North End, and Springfield as a whole given that their future was tied up in the narrative of historical oppression, urban renewal, and community action. Furthermore, how is the media driven narrative of personal responsibility mediated by the lived experience of structural and symbolic violence in poor communities? Who was this event really for, and was this experience for the researchers participating in this environmental walk/bike journey to learn about the everyday life experiences of Springfield residents? Was this a healthy event for community members to learn how social factors impact their every-day health choices? Did one’s position as stakeholder change the purpose of the event? The fifty people gathered may have come to the event for different reasons, but at the end of the walk/bike event people seemed eager to take what they had learned and experienced to their fellow community organizers and take action on the disparities existing in their neighborhoods.

    3.4.7 Gathering Life Histories

    Collecting a personal narrative of someone’s life is a valuable ethnographic technique and is often combined with other techniques. Life histories provide the context in which culture is experienced and created by individuals and describe how individuals have reacted, responded, and contributed to changes that occurred during their lives. They also help anthropologists be more aware of what makes life meaningful to an individual and to focus on the particulars of individual lives, on the tenor of their experiences and the patterns that are important to them. Researchers often include life histories in their ethnographic texts as a way of intimately connecting the reader to the lives of the informants.

    3.4.8 The Genealogical Method

    The genealogical (kinship) method has a long tradition in ethnography. Developed in the early years of anthropological research to document the family systems of tribal groups, it is still used today to discover connections of kinship, descent, marriage, and the overall social system. Because kinship and genealogy are so important in many nonindustrial societies, the technique is used to collect data on important relationships that form the foundation of the society and to trace social relationships more broadly in communities.

    When used by anthropologists, the genealogical method involves using symbols and diagrams to document relationships. Circles represent women and girls, triangles represent men and boys, and squares represent ambiguous or unknown gender. Equal signs between individuals represent their union or marriage and vertical lines descending from a union represent parent-child relationships. The death of an individual and the termination of a marriage are denoted by diagonal lines drawn across the shapes and equal signs. Kinship charts are diagrammed from the perspective of one person who is called the Ego, and all of the relationships in the chart are based on how the others are related to the Ego. Individuals in a chart are sometimes identified by numbers or names, and an accompanying list provides more- detailed information.

    3.4.9 Key Informants

    Within any culture or subculture, there are always particular individuals who are more knowledge- able about the culture than others and who may have more-detailed or privileged knowledge. Anthro- pologists conducting ethnographic research in the field often seek out such cultural specialists to gain a greater understanding of certain issues and to answer questions they otherwise could not answer. When an anthropologist establishes a rapport with these individuals and begins to rely more on them for information than on others, the cultural specialists are referred to as key informants or key cultural consultants.

    Key informants can be exceptional assets in the field, allowing the ethnographer to uncover the meanings of behaviors and practices the researcher cannot otherwise understand. Key informants can also help researchers by directly observing others and reporting those observations to the researchers, especially in situations in which the researcher is not allowed to be present or when the researcher’s presence could alter the participants’ behavior. In addition, ethnographers can check information they obtained from other informants, contextualize it, and review it for accuracy. Having a key informant in the field is like having a research ally. The relationship can grow and become enormously fruitful.

    An example of the central role that key informants can play in an ethnographer’s research can be seen in the 2010 Labor and Legality: An Ethnography of a Mexican Immigrant Network where Ruth Gomberg-Munoz provides a complex look at the lives of ten male undocumented immigrants, the Lions, who work as restaurant busboys in Chicago, Illinois. Gomberg-Munoz nicknames her informants “The Lions” because they all come from Leon, Mexico; Leon means lion in Spanish. Gomberg-Munoz writes about their daily lives, which personalizes the faces of illegal immigrants in the context of larger structural violence. Her writing style and the use of the personal stories of undocumented immigrants at the beginning of each chapter allows her readers to become emotionally invested in the lives of these marginalized men. These personal vignettes are contrasted against typical representations of undocumented immigrants found in mainstream media.

    3.4.10 Field Notes

    Field notes are indispensable when conducting ethnographic research. Although making such notes is time-consuming, they form the primary record of one’s observations. Generally speaking, ethnographers write two kinds of notes: field notes and personal reflections. Field notes are detailed descriptions of everything the ethnographer observes and experiences. They include specific details about what hap- pened at the field site, the ethnographer’s sensory impressions, and specific words and phrases used by the people observed. They also frequently include the content of conversations the ethnographer had and things the ethnographer overheard others say. Ethnographers also sometimes include their personal reflections on the experience of writing field notes. Often, brief notes are jotted down in a notebook while the anthropologist is observing and participating in activities. Later, they expand on those quick notes to make more formal field notes, which may be organized and typed into a report. It is common for ethnographers to spend several hours a day writing and organizing field notes.

    Ethnographers often also keep a personal journal or diary that may include information about their emotions and personal experiences while conducting research. These personal reflections can be as important as the field notes. Ethnography is not an objective science. Everything researchers do and experience in the field is filtered through their personal life experiences. Two ethnographers may experience a situation in the field in different ways and understand the experience differently. For this reason, it is important for researchers to be aware of their reactions to situations and be mindful of how their life experiences affect their perceptions. In fact, this sort of reflexive insight can turn out to be a useful data source and analytical tool that improves the researcher’s understanding.

    The work of anthropologist Renato Rosaldo provides a useful example of how anthropologists can use their emotional responses to fieldwork situations to advance their research. In 1981, Rosaldo and his wife, Michelle, were conducting research among the Ilongots of Northern Luzon in the Philippines. Rosaldo was studying men in the community who engaged in emotional rampages in which they violently murdered others by cutting off their heads. Although the practice had been banned by the time Rosaldo arrived, a longing to continue headhunting remained in the cultural psyche of the community. Whenever Rosaldo asked a man why he engaged in headhunting, the answer was that rage and grief caused him to kill others. At the beginning of his fieldwork, Rosaldo felt that the response was overly simplistic and assumed that there had to be more to it than that. He was frustrated because he could not uncover a deeper understanding of the phenomenon. Then, on October 11, 1981, Rosaldo’s wife was walking along a ravine when she tripped, lost her footing, and fell 65 feet to her death, leaving Rosaldo a grieving single father. In his essay “Grief and a Headhunter’s Rage,” Rosaldo later wrote that it was his own struggle with rage as he grieved for his wife that helped him truly grasp what the Ilongot men meant when they described their grief and rage.

    Only a week before completing the initial draft of an earlier version of this introduction, I rediscovered my journal entry, written some six weeks after Michelle’s death, in which I made a vow to myself about how I would return to writing anthropology, if I ever did so, by writing Grief and a Headhunter’s Rage . . . My journal went on to reflect more broadly on death, rage, and headhunting by speaking of my wish for the Ilongot solution; they are much more in touch with reality than Christians. So, I need a place to carry my anger – and can we say a solution of the imagination is better than theirs? And can we condemn them when we napalm villages? Is our rationale so much sounder than theirs? All this was written in despair and rage.[5]

    Only through the very personal and emotionally devastating experience of losing his wife was Rosaldo able to understand the emic perspective of the headhunters. The result was an influential and insightful ethnographic account.

    3.5 Ethical Considerations

    3.5.1 Ethical Guidelines in Anthropological Research

    From the earliest days of anthropology as a discipline, concern about the ethical treatment of people who take part in studies has been an important consideration. Ethical matters are central to any research project and anthropologists take their ethical responsibilities particularly seriously. As discussed throughout this chapter, anthropologists are oriented toward developing empathy for their informants and understanding their cultures and experiences from an emic perspective. Many also have a sense of personal responsibility for the well-being of the local people with whom they work in the field.

    Building trust through rapport and mutual understanding is paramount to any ethnographic endeavor. We are often asking for our informants to share a look into some of the most personal aspects of their lives. How can we expect such openness without a sense of trust? Trust building is therefore arguably the most important step in beginning any anthropological study.

    Trust is Earned

    On the evening of February 15, 2012, I (Vanessa Martínez) was sitting in the conference room that Universal Community Voices Eliminating Disparities (UCVED) shared with other organizations in their (previous) office building at 640 Page Boulevard in Springfield, Massachusetts. I was waiting to interview Betty Agin, the community leader who founded UCVED in 2009 after co-leading monthly health roundtable discussion groups and monthly community conversations with another community leader, Juan Montoya* and a health professional, Dr. Joseph Frames*. That day, Betty arrived frantic because she was late and then proceeded to inform me she had to leave early. We would only have about 60 minutes for the interview, but she said she would be available again if I wanted. When Betty sat down next to me, she told me “to begin.” I asked her some questions about her life, her work as a community organizer, and her passions. I ran the interview informally, probing her for more details throughout the interview. I have observed Betty and her facilitation style for over two years and was interested in getting more information about why she was a community organizer trying to improve health disparities and increase community involvement in Springfield.

    The most salient part of this discussion was when we discussed the idea of collaboration and trust. At first, Betty said that she does not “really think about trust, it’s intuitive.” Yet as we continued the interview discussing the concept of trust, the pattern that arose was that while she wanted to trust people to do the work she did, it was actually really hard for her to trust them. In fact, when I asked her if she wanted my help, she said yes. But when I asked if she would allow me to assist in my own way and without her micromanaging me, she hesitated. She said she “likes things done her way, because she knows how to do it (i.e. organize) in her community”. Her hesitation comes from a history of working with people who did NOT step up to the leadership roles she asked of them.

    As a researcher collaborating with community leaders from historically marginalized communities, I am aware of community members’ past negative experiences with academics. I try to walk the walk of true collaboration. I remember the legacy of grave robbing and of medical experimentation on black bodies and other marginalized populations. And this history is never truly forgotten, nor do I believe it should be. In fact, the misinformation and stigmatization of people of color continues with our media today. And so, I believe it is up to the researcher to show the community that they are there with the best of intentions and with the goal of collaboration. The concept of reciprocity also comes to mind. Betty needed, from me and others like me, to see that our relationship was mutually beneficial and that I was not working with her to get my research done and then leave. And so, I must remember that I am both an academic (outsider in the community) and a woman of color (an insider or part of communities of color). And both of these social positions influence my research, my collaborations, and my power in the community.

    Author’s Note: names have been changed for anonymity

    Building rapport is critical to being able to engage in the research in the first place. Once trust is earned, we need to think about what comes next to ensure ethical consideration of the research and our informants. The American Anthropological Association has developed a Code of Ethics that all anthropologists should follow in their work. Among the many ethical responsibilities outlined in the code, doing no harm, obtaining informed consent, maintaining subjects’ anonymity, and making the results of the research accessible are especially important responsibilities.

    3.5.2 Do No Harm

    First and foremost, anthropologists must ensure that their involvement with a community does not harm or embarrass their informants. Researchers must carefully consider any potential harm associated with the research, including legal, emotional, political, economic, social, and cultural dimensions, and take steps to insulate their informants from such harm. Since it is not always possible to anticipate every potential repercussion at the outset, anthropologists also must continually monitor their work to ensure that their research design and methods minimize any risk.

    Regrettably, the proscription to do no harm is a deceptively complex requirement. Despite their best efforts, anthropologists have run into ethical problems in the field. Work by Napoleon Chagnon among an isolated indigenous tribe of the Amazon, the Yonomami, is a well-known example of ethical problems in anthropological research. In his groundbreaking ethnography Yanomamö: The Fierce People (1968), Chagnon portrayed the Yanomami as an intensely violent and antagonistic people. The ethnography was well received initially. However, not long after its publication, controversy erupted. Anthro- pologists and other scholars have accused Chagnon of encouraging the violence he documented, staging fights and scenes for documentary films and fabricating data.

    The (w)hole story: Researchers and Community need to be on the same page

    While writing this chapter, I (Vanessa Martínez) am struck by a story I remember hearing at a day-long workshop training in Boston on November 20, 2010. This training, titled Racism: The Deadliest Disease in America, was presented by Critical Mass & Center for Community Health Education Research and Services at Northeastern University. As part of an afternoon workshop on Participatory Health Research for Understanding and Eliminating Health Disparities, I heard an allegory highlighting the extreme differences in researcher and community perspectives on a social problem or community issue. Researchers and community members see different things. The story goes something like this… There was once a hole in the ground. Researchers are interested in studying the hole and ask the community for permission to study the hole. The community wants the hole fixed because the hole is not productive for the community. The researchers gather data about the hole’s physical makeup (its length, its width and its depth) and explain how and why the hole exists. When the researchers are done collecting data, they leave and the community is left with a hole in the ground, feeling used and unheard. In this story, the researchers did not connect their goals of study with the community they were studying. Instead, the researchers held the academic power by taking from the community with no distribution of data, resources and power for the community.

    Today, Do No Harm is a central ethical value in anthropology. However, it can be difficult to predict every challenge one may encounter in the field or after the work is published. Anthropologists must continually reevaluate their research and writing to ensure that it does not harm the informants or their communities. Before fieldwork begins, researchers from universities, colleges, and institutions usually must submit their research agendas to an institutional review board (IRB). IRBs review research plans to ensure that the proposed studies will not harm human subjects. In many cases, the IRB is aware of the unique challenges and promise of anthropological research and can guide the researcher in eliminating or mitigating potential ethical problems.

    3.5.3 Obtain Informed Consent

    In addition to taking care to do no harm, anthropologists must obtain informed consent from all of their informants before conducting any research. Informed consent is the informant’s agreement to take part in the study. Originally developed in the context of medical and psychological research, this ethical guideline is also relevant to anthropology. Informants must be aware of who the anthropologist is and the research topic, who is financially and otherwise supporting the research, how the research will be used, and who will have access to it. Finally, their participation must be optional and not coerced. They should be able to stop participating at any time and be aware of and comfortable with any risks associated with their participation.

    In medical and psychological research settings in the United States, researchers typically obtain informed consent by asking prospective participants to sign a document that outlines the research and the risks involved in their participation, acknowledging that they agree to take part. In some anthropological contexts, however, this type of informed consent may not be appropriate. People may not trust the state, bureaucratic processes, or authority, for example. Asking them to sign a formal legal-looking document may intimidate them. Likewise, informed consent cannot be obtained with a signed document if many in the community cannot read. The anthropologist must determine the most appropriate way to obtain informed consent in the context of the particular research setting.

    3.5.4 Maintain Anonymity and Privacy

    Another important ethical consideration for anthropologists in the field is ensuring the anonymity and privacy of informants who need such protection. When I did research among undocumented Mexican immigrant college students, I recognized that my informants’ legal status put them at considerable risk. I took care to use pseudonyms for all of the informants, even when writing field notes. In my writing, I changed the names of the informants’ relatives, friends, schools, and workplaces to protect them from being identified. Maintaining privacy and anonymity is an important way for anthropologists to ensure that their involvement does no harm.

    3.5.5 Make Results Accessible

    Finally, anthropologists must always make their final research results accessible to their informants and to other researchers. For informants, a written report in the researcher’s native language may not be the best way to convey the results. Reports can be translated or the results can be converted into a more accessible format. Examples of creative ways in which anthropologists have made their results available include establishing accessible databases for their research data, contributing to existing databases, producing films that portray the results, and developing texts or recommendations that provide tangible assistance to the informants’ communities. Though it is not always easy to make research results accessible in culturally appropriate ways, it is essential that others have the opportunity to review and benefit from the research, especially those who participated in its creation.

    Reflection: How are these ethical considerations reflected in the American Anthropological Association’s code of ethics introduced in Chapter 1?

    3.6 Writing Ethnography

    3.6.1 Analysis and Interpretation of Research Findings

    Once all or most of the fieldwork is complete, ethnographers analyze their data and research findings before beginning to write. There are many techniques for data analysis from which to choose based on the strategy and goals of the research. Regardless of the particular technique, data analysis involves a systematic interpretation of what the researcher thinks the data mean. The ethnographer reviews all of the data collected, synthesizes findings from the review, and integrates those findings with prior studies on the topic. Once the analysis is complete, the ethnographer is ready to write an account of the fieldwork.

    3.6.2 Whose Story is it?

    In recent years, anthropologists have expressed concern about how ethnographies should be written in terms of ethnographic authority: how ethnographers present themselves and their informants in text. In a nonfiction text, the author is a mediator between readers and the topic and the text is written to help readers understand an unfamiliar topic. In ethnography, the topic is people, and people naturally vary in terms of their thoughts, opinions, beliefs, and perspectives. That is, they have individual voices. In the past, anthropologists commonly wrote ethnographic accounts as if they possessed the ultimate most complete scientific knowledge on the topic. Subsequently, anthropologists began to challenge that writing style, particularly when it did not include the voices of their informants in the text and analysis. Some of this criticism originated with feminist anthropologists who noted that women’s experiences and perspectives frequently were omitted and misrepresented in this style of writing. Others believed that this style of writing reinforced existing global power dynamics and privileges afforded to Western anthropologists’ voices as most important.

    3.6.3 Polyvocality: Multiple voices are working together to tell the story

    In response to criticisms about ethnographic authority, anthropologists have begun to include polyvocality. A polyvocal text is one in which more than one person’s voice is presented, and its use can range from ensuring that informants’ perspectives are presented in the text while still writing in the researcher’s voice to including informants’ actual words rather than paraphrasing them and co-authoring the ethnography with an informant. A good example of polyvocality is anthropologist Ruth Behar’s book Translated Woman: Crossing the Border with Esperanza’s Story (1993). Behar’s book documents the life story of a Mexican street peddler, Esperanza Hernández, and their unique friendship. Large sections of the book are in Esperanza’s own words and discuss issues that are important to her. Behar also includes pieces of her own life story and an anthropological analysis of Esperanza’s story.

    By using polyvocality, researchers can avoid writing from the perspective of the ultimate ethnographic authority. A polyvocal style also allows readers to be more involved in the text since they have the opportunity to form their own opinions about the ethnographic data and perhaps even critique the author’s analysis. It also encourages anthropologists to be more transparent when presenting their methods and data.

    3.6.4 Reflexivity: Researchers impact on the story

    Reflexivity is another relatively new approach to ethnographic research and writing. Beginning in the 1960s, social science researchers began to think more carefully about the effects of their life experiences, status, and roles on their research and analyses. They began to insert themselves into their texts, including information about their personal experiences, thoughts, and life stories and to analyze in the accounts how those characteristics affected their research and analysis.

    Adoption of reflexivity is perhaps the most significant change in how ethnography is researched and written in the past 50 years. It calls on anthropologists to acknowledge that they are part of the world they study and thus can never truly be objective. Reflexivity has also contributed to anthropologists’ appreciation of the unequal power dynamics of research and the effects those dynamics can have on the results. Reflexivity reminds the ethnographer that there are multiple ways to interpret any given cultural scenario. By acknowledging how their backgrounds affect their interpretations, anthropologists can begin to remove themselves from the throne of ethnographic authority and allow other, less- empowered voices to be heard.

    In my own (Vanessa’s) doctoral research and writing, I used reflexivity to ensure that I communicated my positionality and my goals to all community members involved in my health equity research in Springfield, Massachusetts. I told my story of interacting with black community organizers who questioned my light skin Latine body and research goals and my own need to ensure transparency and collaborative research with community, for community. I shared my interest in doing community-engaged research before I ever knew there was a term for it. It was this reflexive position that led me to be able to discuss two health case studies and their relationship to building sustainable and mutually beneficial community-research partnerships. I continue to engage in this type of work in all my professional roles – as a community college professor, cultural humility and anti-racist trainer, non-profit professional and more.

    Discussion Questions

    1. What is unique about ethnographic fieldwork and how did it emerge as a key strategy in anthropology?
    2. How do traditional approaches to ethnographic fieldwork contrast with contemporary approaches?
    3. What are some of the contemporary ethnographic fieldwork techniques and perspectives and why are they important to anthropology?
    4. What are some of the ethical considerations in doing anthropological fieldwork and why are they important?
    5. How do anthropologists transform their fieldwork data into a story that communicates meaning? How are reflexivity and polyvocality changing the way anthropologists communicate their work?


    Contested identity: a dispute within a group about the collective identity or identities of the group. Cultural relativism: the idea that we should seek to understand another person’s beliefs and behaviors from the perspective of their own culture and not our own.

    Cultural determinism: the idea that behavioral differences are a result of cultural, not racial or genetic causes.

    Culture: a set of beliefs, practices, and symbols that are learned and shared. Together, they form an all- encompassing, integrated whole that binds people together and shapes their worldview and lifeways.

    Deductive: reasoning from the general to the specific; the inverse of inductive reasoning. Deductive research is more common in the natural sciences than in anthropology. In a deductive approach, the researcher creates a hypothesis and then designs a study to prove or disprove the hypothesis. The results of deductive research can be generalizable to other settings.

    Diaspora: the scattering of a group of people who have left their original homeland and now live in various locations. Examples of people living in the diaspora are Salvadorian immigrants in the United States and Europe, Somalian refugees in various countries, and Jewish people living around the world.

    Emic: a description of the studied culture from the perspective of a member of the culture or insider. Ethnocentrism: the tendency to view one’s own culture as most important and correct and as the stick by which to measure all other cultures.

    Ethnography: the in-depth study of the everyday practices and lives of a people.

    Etic: a description of the studied culture from the perspective of an observer or outsider.

    Indigenous: people who have continually lived in a particular location for a long period of time (prior to the arrival of others) or who have historical ties to a location and who are culturally distinct from the dominant population surrounding them. Other terms used to refer to indigenous people are aboriginal, native, original, first nation, and first people. Some examples of indigenous people are Native Ameri- cans of North America, Australian Aborigines, and the Berber (or Amazigh) of North Africa.

    Inductive: a type of reasoning that uses specific information to draw general conclusions. In an inductive approach, the researcher seeks to collect evidence without trying to definitively prove or disprove a hypothesis. The researcher usually first spends time in the field to become familiar with the people before identifying a hypothesis or research question. Inductive research usually is not generalizable to other settings.

    Key Informants: individuals who are more knowledgeable about their culture than others and who are particularly helpful to the anthropologist.

    Kinship: blood ties, common ancestry, and social relationships that form families within human groups.

    Land tenure: how property rights to land are allocated within societies, including how permissions are granted to access, use, control, and transfer land.

    Noble savage: an inaccurate way of portraying indigenous groups or minority cultures as innocent, childlike, or uncorrupted by the negative characteristics of “civilization.”

    Participant observation: a type of observation in which the anthropologist observes while participating in the same activities in which her informants are engaged.

    Qualitative: anthropological research designed to gain an in-depth, contextualized understanding of human behavior.

    Quantitative: anthropological research that uses statistical, mathematical, and/or numerical data to study human behavior.

    Remittances: money that migrants laboring outside of the region or country send back to their home- towns and families. In Mexico, remittances make up a substantial share of the total income of some towns’ populations.

    Thick description: a term coined by anthropologist Clifford Geertz in his 1973 book The Interpretation of Cultures to describe a detailed description of the studied group that not only explains the behavior or cultural event in question but also the context in which it occurs and anthropological interpretations of it.

    Undocumented: the preferred term for immigrants who live in a country without formal authorization from the state. Undocumented refers to the fact that these people lack the official documents that would legally permit them to reside in the country. Other terms such as illegal immigrant and illegal alien are often used to refer to this population. Anthropologists consider those terms to be discriminatory and dehumanizing. The word undocumented acknowledges the human dignity and cultural and political ties immigrants have developed in their country of residence despite their inability to establish formal residence permissions.


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    Boddy, Janice. Civilizing Women: British Crusades in Colonial Sudan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.

    Chagnon, Napoleon. Yanomamö: The Fierce People. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968.

    Chavez, Leo. The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens and the Nation. Stanford: Stanford Uni- versity Press, 2008.

    Dettwyler, Katherine A. Dancing Skeletons: Life and Death in West Africa. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2014

    Frazer, James. The Golden Bough: A Study in Comparative Religion. London: Macmillian Press, 1894. Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books, 1973.

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    Malinowski, Bronislaw. Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea. London: Kegan Paul 1922.

    Mead, Margaret. Coming of Age in Samoa: A Psychological Study of Primitive Youth for Western Civilization.

    New York: William Morrow and Company, 1928.

    Miner, Horace. “Body Ritual Among the Nacirema.” American Anthropologist 58 no. 3 (1956): 503-507. Nelson, Katherine. 2015. Between Citizenship and Alienage: Flexible Identity Among Informally Authorized

    Mexican College Students in Minnesota, USA. PhD diss., CIESAS Occidente (Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social – Institute for Research and Higher Education in Social Anthropology).

    Rosaldo, Renato. “Grief and a Headhunter’s Rage” in Violence in War and Peace, edited by Nancy Scheper- Hughes and Philippe I. Bourgois, 150-156. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004.

    Scheper-Hughes, Nancy. Saints, Scholars, Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural Ireland. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1979.

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    Whyte, William Foote. Street Corner Society: The Social Structure of an Italian Slum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993[1943].

    About the Original Author

    Black and white photo of author Katie Nelson

    Katie Nelson is an instructor of anthropology at Inver Hills Community College. Her research focuses on migration, identity, belonging, and citizenship(s) in human history and in

    the contemporary United States, Mexico, and Morocco. She received her B.A. in anthropology and Latin American studies from Macalester College, her M.A. in anthropology from the University of California, Santa Barbara, an M.A. in education and instructional technology from the University of Saint Thomas, and her Ph.D. from CIESAS Occidente (Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social –Center for Research and Higher Education in Social Anthropology), based in Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Katie views teaching and learning as central to her practice as an anthropologist and as mutually reinforcing elements of her professional life. She is the former chair of the Teaching Anthropology Interest Group (2016–2018) of the General Anthropology Division of the American Anthropological Association and currently serves as the online content editor for the Teaching and Learning Anthropology Journal. She has contributed to several open access textbook projects, both as an author and an editor, and views the affordability of quality learning materials as an important piece of the equity and inclusion puzzle in higher education.

    Media Attributions

    1. Franz Boas, “Foreword,” in Coming of Age in Samoa by Margaret Mead (New York: William Morrow, 1928). ↵
    2. Peter Gordon, “Numerical Cognition Without Words: Evidence from Amazonia,” Science 306 no. 5695 (2004): 496-499. ↵
    3. Janice Bodd, Civilizing Women: British Crusades in Colonial Sudan (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007). ↵
    4. Bronislaw Malinowski, Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archi- pelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea (London: Kegan Paul, 1922), 25. ↵
    5. Renato Rosaldo, “Grief and a Headhunter’s Rage,” in Violence in War and Peace, ed. Nancy Scheper-Hughes and Philippe I. Bourgois (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004), 171. ↵

    This page titled Chapter 3: Doing Fieldwork- Methods in Cultural Anthropology is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Katie Nelson, Vanessa Martínez, Demetrios Brellas, & Demetrios Brellas (Remixing Open Textbooks with an Equity Lens (ROTEL)) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.