# 14: Logical Reasoning

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##### Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, the student will be able to:

• Define critical thinking, deductive reasoning, and inductive reasoning;
• Distinguish between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning;
• Know the four types of inductive reasoning;
• Know the common logical fallacies;
• Become a more critical listener to public speeches and more critical reader of source material.

• 14.1: What is Correct Reasoning?
• 14.2: Inductive Reasoning
• 14.3: Deductive Reasoning
Deductive reasoning, or deduction, is a type of reasoning in which a conclusion is based on the combination of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true. It has been referred to as “reasoning from principle,” which is a good description. It can also be called “top-down” reasoning. However, you should not think of deductive reasoning as the opposite of inductive reasoning. They are two different ways of thinking about evidence.
• 14.4: Logical Fallacies
The second part of achieving a logical speech is to avoid logical fallacies. Logical fallacies are mistakes in reasoning–getting one of the formulas, inductive or deductive, wrong. There are actually dozens upon dozens of fallacies, some of which have complicated Latin names. This chapter will deal with eighteen of the most common ones that you should know to avoid poor logic in your speech and to become a critical thinker.

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