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2.4: Bloom’s Basic Cognitive Domain - Comprehension

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    44742
  • COMPREHENSION: Synonymous with understanding, the long-term objectives at this comprehension level and, especially, the short-term lesson plan objectives, should call for the student to demonstrate his ability to summarize information, translate information from one for or level to another, or predict continuations in data trends.

    Mathematics

    You may wish to show the student that numbers have different forms and can be expressed in different ways, thus increasing her understanding.

    Long-Term Objective

    Example: The student will demonstrate understanding of the different forms of numbers.

    With its requirement for the student to perceive different forms of numbers, this is a comprehension-level objective: “translating information from one form or level to another.” Also, the objective asserts that the student must demonstrate this ability.

    Short-Term Objective

    Example: When shown three, single-digit numbers on individual flashcards, the student will remove, from a group of manipulatives, a corresponding number of objects for each of the numbers presented on the flashcards.

    In this objective, the student is required to demonstrate an understanding of both the blocks’ numerical representations of numbers (e.g. 2, 4, 5) and their concrete representations

    (e.g. ). Additionally, the objective is definite in its conditions (“When shown three, single-digit numbers on individual flashcards”), behavior (“remove”), and minimal standards (“a corresponding number of objects for each of the numbers presented on the flashcards”).

    Science

    As assurance that your student comprehended or understood an observed phenomenon, such as a film, you may ask this student to summarize her observations, and evidence her understanding by including specific components of the phenomenon in the summary.

    Long-Term Objective

    Example: The student will evidence an understanding of mammals.

    The term “understanding” is used synonymously with “comprehension”; hence, this is a comprehension-level objective. Furthermore, the objective specifies the necessity for evidence of pupil understanding, which is provided through observable pupil performance.

    Short-Term Objective

    Example: In a conversation with her teacher, following the viewing of a film about mammals, the student will summarize the film by naming at least three different categories of mammals and two characteristics common to all mammals. The minimal standards are precise: “at least three different categories of mammals and two characteristics common to all mammals.”

    Unlike a knowledge-level assignment, in which the student simply repeats something she has been told, this objective requires that she summarize or explain something she has observed. Moreover, the objective is clear about the contents of the summary (minimal standards): “three different categories of mammals and two characteristics common to all mammals.” Additionally, the conditions are exact (“In a conversation with her teacher, following the viewing of a film about mammals”) and the behaviors are observable (“summarize the film by naming three different categories of mammals and two characteristics common to all mammals”).

    Social Studies

    As a means of assessing each student’s comprehension of an across-the-curriculum reading assignment, you may elect to discuss the reading with the child, asking questions that will disclose whether she has understood what she has read.

    Long-Term Objective

    Example: The student will demonstrate the ability to summarize historical information.

    By definition, the ability to summarize information is a component of the comprehension level. This objective is commensurate with the component, and the objective specifies that the student must demonstrate this ability.

    Short-Term Objective

    Example: In a conversation with his teacher, following his oral reading of a trade book on the Battle of Gettysburg, the student will summarize the battle, mentioning two officers from both the Union and the Confederacy, the total number of persons killed, and the name of the US president who later gave a famous speech at this site.

    Meeting the criteria specified in this objective reflects performance at the comprehension level; because to summarize, the student must comprehend. However, it should be remembered that the objective should state exactly what the minimal inclusions of the summary are, as this objective states in its minimal standards of performance: “two officers from both the Union and the Confederacy, total number of persons killed, and the name of the US president who later gave a famous speech at this site.” Also, the objective is precise in its statement of conditions: “In a conversation with his teacher, following his oral reading of a trade book on the Battle of Gettysburg,” and definite in its requirement of observable pupil behavior: “conversation,” “summarize,” “mentioning.”

    English Language Arts

    To develop within the child an understanding of the different forms that an object possesses, the teacher may assist the child in experiencing the concrete, pictorial, and word forms of an object.

    Long-Term Objective

    Example: The student will display an understanding of phenomena in their various forms: concrete, semi-concrete, abstract.

    This is a comprehension-level objective in that it requires the student to translate information from one form to another, and the term “display” indicates the necessity for observable pupil behavior.

    Short-Term Objective

    Example: After examining a kick ball presented by the teacher, the student will sort through and select a picture of a ball from a stack of picture cards; and then sort through and select the word “ball” from a stack of word cards.

    With its requirement for the student to comprehend three different forms of a ball (concrete, semi-concrete, and abstract), she is translating information from one form to other forms. Furthermore, this objective is clear in its conditions (“After examining a kick ball presented by the teacher”, behaviors (“sort,” “select”), and minimal standards of performance (“a picture of a ball,” “the word,” ‘ball’).

    Daily Living Skills

    Since the ability to explain or summarize is essential to a child’s social development, the teacher should present him with opportunities that will enhance this ability.

    Long-Term Objective

    Example: The student will evidence the ability to explain observed social situations.

    The term “explain” may be used synonymously with “summarize,” a component of the comprehension level; and the term “evidence” is indicative of the observable student behavior that should be specified in the ensuing short-term objective.

    Short-Term Objective

    Example: In a conversation with his teacher, following the viewing of a vignette involving the four-step sequence of a child’s riding a bicycle, his failure to obey a stop sign, a car braking to miss the child, and the frightened child walking his bike to the sidewalk, the student will explain the event, including each of the four steps in sequence.

    By explaining the contents of the vignette in sequence, the child is meeting the “ability to summarize information,” a component of the comprehension level. It is important, however, that minimal standards of the summary’s content be specified. Here, the minimal content inclusions are “each of the four steps in sequence;” the conditions are “In a conversation with his teacher, following the viewing of a vignette involving the four-step sequence of a child’s riding a bicycle, his failure to obey a stop sign, a car braking to miss the child, and the frightened child waking his bike to the sidewalk.” The behavior “explain” is clarified by the term “conversation,” which indicates that the explanation is to be oral. Hence, the conditions, behavior, and minimal standards of the objective are present in the objective.

    Employability Training Skills

    Understanding patterns and the ability to extend these patterns are often prerequisite to many on-the-job tasks. With this in mind, you may wish to afford your student opportunities to comprehend and continue patterns in a variety of modes.

    Long-Term Objective

    Example: The student will demonstrate the ability to continue patterns with building materials.

    To continue a pattern, the student must be able to predict a continuation in a trend of data, a component of the comprehension level. A comprehension-level objective, this long-term objective instructs that the student must demonstrate this ability.

    Short-Term Objective

    Example: Presented with an assortment of designed wall covering squares and the pattern “flower,” “tree,” “water,” “sun,” “flower,” “tree,” (illustrated squares are preferred here), the student will select the next three squares from the assortment and continue the pattern.

    With her predicting and continuing this pattern, the student is performing at the comprehension level. The conditions are definite: “Presented with an assortment of designed wall covering squares and the pattern…” The specified behaviors are observable within the context of the objective, “select,” and “continue,” and the minimal standards of performance are measurable: “the next three sequences.”

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