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  • Arter, J.A. & Spandel, V. (1992). NCME instructional module: Using portfolios of student work in instruction and assessment. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 11 (1), 36-44.

    Arter, J., Spandel, V., & Culham, R. (1995). Portfolios for assessment and instruction. ERIC Digest . Retrieved November 6, 2019 from

    Black, P. & William, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80 , 139-144.

    Black, P. & William, D. (2009). Developing the theory for formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Accountability, 21 , 5-31.

    Brookhart, S.M. (2008). Portfolio assessment. In T.L. Good (Ed.), 21 st century education: A reference handbook (Vol. 1, pp. 443-450). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Bookhart, S.M. & Nitko, A. J. (2008). Assessment and grading in classrooms . New York: Pearson.

    Butler, S.M. & NcMunn, N.D. (2014). A teacher’s guide to classroom assessment: understanding and using assessment to improve student learning . San Francisco: Josey-Bass.

    Chappuis, J., Stiggins, R.J., Chappuis, S. & Arter, J.A. (2011). Classroom assessment for student learning: Doing it right – using it well (2 nd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Chatterji, M. (2003). Designing and using tools for educational assessment .

    Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

    Council of Chief State School Officers. (2010). State-wide student assessment: 2009-10 . Washington, DC: Author.

    Darling-Hammond, L., Ancess, J., & Falk, B. (1995). Authentic assessment in action: Studies of schools and students at work . New York: Teachers College Press.

    Earl, L.M. (2012). Assessment as learning: Using classroom assessment to maximize student learning (2 nd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    Friend, M. & Bursuck, W.D. (2005). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers (4 th edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

    Gearhart, M., Herman, J.L., Baker, E.L. & Whittaker, A.K. (1994). Writing portfolios at the elementary level: A study of methods for writing assessment. Los Angles: University of California, Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing. Retrieved November 6, 2019 from

    Good, T.L. & Lavigne, J.E. (2017). Looking into classrooms (11 th edition). London: Routledge.

    Gronlund, N.E. (2003). Assessment of student achievement . Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

    Grounlund, N.E. & Brookhart, S.M. (2009). Gronlund’s writing instructional objectives (8 th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Hallahan, D.P., Lloyd, J.W., Kauffman, J.M., and Weiss, M.P. (2004). Learning disabilities: Foundations, characteristics, and effective teaching (3 rd edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

    Hambleton, R.K. & Murphy, E. (1992). A psychometric perspective on authentic measurement. Applied Measurement in Education, 5 , 1-16.

    Hogan, T.P. & Murphy, G. (2007). Recommendations for preparing and scoring constructed-response items: What the experts say. Applied Measurement in Education, 20 , 427-441.

    LeMahieu, P.G., Gitomer, D.H., & Eresh, J. (1995). Portfolios in large-scale assessment: Difficult but not impossible . Educational Measurement: Issues and Practices, 13(3), 5-16.

    Liftig, I. F., & And Others. (1992). Making assessment work: What teachers should know before they try it. Science Scope , 15 (6), 4–8.

    Lorenzo, G. & Ittelson, J. (2005). An overview of E-portfolios . Boulder, CO: Educause.

    Retrieved November 6, 2019 from

    McClure, P. (2005). Where standards come from. Theory Into Practice, 44 (1), 4-10.

    McMillan, J.H. (2017). Classroom assessment: Principles and practices that enhance student learning and motivation (7 th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    McTighe, J., & Brown, J. (2005). Differentiated instruction and educational standards: Is détente possible? Theory Into Practice, 44 (3), 234-244.

    McTighe J. & Wiggins G. (2005). Understanding by design (2 nd Expanded Edition). Alexandra, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

    Mills, M., & Wake, D. (2017). Empowering learners with mobile open-access learning initiatives . Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

    Moss, C.M. & Brookhart, S.M. (2012). Learning targets: Helping students aim for understanding in today’s lesson . Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    Oosterhof, A. (2008). Developing and using classroom assessments (4h edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Penuel, W.R. & Shepard, L.A. (2016). Assessment and teaching. In D.H. Gitomer & C.A Bell (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching (5 th edition) (pp. 787-850). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

    Reese, M. & Levy, R. (2009). Assessing for the future: E-portfolio trends, uses, and options in higher education . Educause. Retrieved November 5, 2019 from

    Renwick, M. (2014). Digital student portfolios: A whole school approach to connected learning and continuous assessment . Virginia Beach, VA: Powerful Learning Press.

    Reynolds, C.R., Livingston, R.B., & Willson, V. (2008). Measurement and Assessment in Education (2 nd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Rinkema, E.A. & Williams, S. (2018). The standards-based classroom: Make learning the goal . Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    Rudner, L.M. & Boston, C. (1994). Performance assessment. The ERIC Review, 3 (1), 2-12.

    Russell, M.K. & Airasian, P.W. (2012). Classroom assessment: Concepts and applications . New York: McGraw Hill.

    Russo, J.M., Williford, A.P., Markowitz, A.J., Vitiello, V.E. & Bassok, D. (2019). Examining the validity of a widely-used school readiness assessment: Implications for teachers and early childhood programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly , 48 , 14–25.

    Shavelson, R.J., Baxter, G.P., & Gao, X. (1993). Sampling variability of performance assessments. Journal of Educational Measurement, 30 , 215-232.

    Snyder, S. (2019). Authentic assessment: artifacts, presentations, and rubrics validate learning. Principal , 6–9.

    Spinelli, C.G. (2011). Classroom assessment for students in special and general education (3 rd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Stecher, B. & Mitchell, K.J. (1995). Portfolio-driven reform: Vermont teachers’ understanding of mathematical problem solving and related changes in classroom practice . Los Angles: University of California, Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing. Retrieved November 6, 2019 from

    Stiggins, R.J. (1987). Design and development of performance assessment. Educational Measurement: Issue and Practice, 6 (3), 33-42.

    Struyven, K., Dochy, F. & Janssens, S. (2005). Student perceptions about evaluation and assessment in higher education: A review. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 30 , 325-341.

    Sundberg, S. B. (2006). An investigation of the effects of exam essay questions on student learning in united states history survey classes. History Teacher , 40 (1), 59–68.

    Swanson, H.L. Harris, K.R., and Graham, S. (2005). Handbook of learning disabilities . New York: Guilford.

    Tanner, David E. (2001). Assessing academic achievement . Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

    Verhavert, S., Bouwer, R., Donche, V., & De Maeyer, S. (2019). A meta-analysis on the reliability of comparative judgement. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice , 26 (5), 541–562.

    Walstad, W. B. (2006). Testing for depth of understanding in economics using essay questions. Journal of Economic Education , 37 (1), 38–47.

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