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7.3: Summary, References and Resources

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    Portfolio artifacts should be representative samples of both the curriculum and the student’s work, because the inclusion of unrepresentative curriculum samples or atypically best examples of work only serve to distort and mislead. You and each of your students should select representative samples from each of the six levels of the cognitive hierarchy for inclusion in each portfolio to give you, your student, and the parents a broader and more accurate picture of the student’s relative strengths and weaknesses. For example, you may learn that a student is having difficulty applying some of the concepts that were memorized because they were not comprehended.

    Since learning should be a continual process, your students’ portfolios should reflect growth. To show this process, the portfolio should contain work samples that show processes as well as products. If your students take part in the selection of their portfolio inclusions, they can see the progress of their learning, and they can assume ownership of it as well.

    Chapter 7 References

    Benedict, A. E., Thomas, R. A., Kimerling, J., & Leko, C. (2013). Trends in teacher evaluation: What every special education teacher should know. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 45, 60-68.

    Bland, L. M., & Gareis, C. R. (2018). Performance assessments: A review of definitions, quality characteristics, and outcomes associated with their use in k-12 schools. Teacher Educators’ Journal , 11 , 52–69.

    Brookhart, S.M. & Nitko, A. J. (2015). Educational assessment of students (8 th edition). New York: Pearson.

    Miller, M.D., Linn, R.L. & Gronlund, N.E. (2013). Measurement and assessment in teaching (11 th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

    Paulson, L. (1994). Portfolio guidelines in primary math. Portland, OR: Multnomah County Educational Service District.

    Perrault, C. (1697). Cinderella. Retrieved November 11 , 2019 from

    Chapter 7 Resources

    Arter, J.A. & Spandel, V. (1992). NCME instructional module: Using portfolios of student work in instruction and assessment. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 11 (1), 36-44.

    Arter, J., Spandel, V., & Culham, R. (1995). Portfolios for assessment and instruction. ERIC Digest. Retrieved November 6, 2019 from

    Brookhart, S.M. (2008). Portfolio assessment. In T.L. Good (Ed.), 21 st century education: A reference handbook (Vol. 1, pp. 443-450). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Darling-Hammond, L., Ancess, J., & Falk, B. (1995). Authentic assessment in action: Studies of schools and students at work. New York: Teachers College Press.

    LeMahieu, P.G., Gitomer, D.H., & Eresh, J. (1995). Portfolios in large-scale assessment: Difficult but not impossible. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practices, 13(3), 5-16.

    Lorenzo, G. & Ittelson, J. (2005). An overview of E-portfolios. Boulder, CO: Educause. Retrieved November 6, 2019 from

    Mills, M., & Wake, D. (2017). Empowering learners with mobile open-access learning initiatives. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

    Reese, M. & Levy, R. (2009). Assessing for the future: E-portfolio trends, uses, and options in higher education. Educause. Retrieved November 5, 2019 from

    Renwick, M. (2014). Digital student portfolios: A whole school approach to connected learning and continuous assessment. Virginia Beach, VA: Powerful Learning Press.

    Stecher, B. & Mitchell, K.J. (1995). Portfolio-driven reform: Vermont teachers’ understanding of mathematical problem solving and related changes in classroom practice. Los Angles: University of California, Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing. Retrieved November 6, 2019 from

    This page titled 7.3: Summary, References and Resources is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Edwin P. Christmann, John L. Badgett, & Mark D. Hogue.

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