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8.11: References

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    154068
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    1. Dan Merica, “Black Lives Matter Protesters Shut Down Sanders Event in Seattle,” CNN, 10 August 2015.
    2. http://blacklivesmatter.com/about/ (August 29, 2015).
    3. Conor Friedersdorf, “A Conversation about Black Lives Matter and Bernie Sanders,” The Atlantic, 21 August 2015.
    4. Anthony R. Fellow. 2013. American Media History. Boston: Cengage, page 67.
    5. Jeremy Lipschultz and Michael Hilt. 2003. “Race and Local Television News Crime Coverage,” Studies in Media & Information Literacy Education 3, No. 4: 1–10.
    6. Lucas Shaw, “TV Networks Offering More On Demand to Reduce Ad-Skipping,” Bloomberg Technology, 24 September 2014.
    7. Shannon Bond, "Unwelcome On Facebook And Twitter, QAnon Followers Flock To Fringe Sites," NPR, 31 January, 2021. https://www.npr.org/2021/01/31/96210...o-fringe-sites
    8. Vanna Le, “Global 2000: The World’s Largest Media Companies of 2014,” Forbes, 7 May 2014.
    9. Stephanie Hayes, “Clear Channel Rejects St. Pete Pride Billboards, Organizers Say,” Tampa Bay Times, 11 June 2010.
    10. Meg James, “DOJ Clears Gannett-Belo Deal but Demands Sale of St. Louis TV Station,” Los Angeles Times, 16 December 2013.
    11. John Zaller. 2003. “A New Standard of News Quality: Burglar Alarms for the Monitorial Citizen,” Political Communication 20, No. 2: 109–130.
    12. Suzanne Ranks, “Ethiopian Famine: How Landmark BBC Report Influenced Modern Coverage,” Guardian, 22 October 2014.
    13. Hisham Aidi, “Haitians in the Dominican Republic in Legal Limbo,” Al Jazeera, 10 April 2015.
    14. “Pressure the Government of the Dominican Republic to Stop its Planned ‘Cleaning’ of 250,000 Black Dominicans,” https://petitions.whitehouse.gov/pet...ack-dominicans (November 26, 2015); Led Black, “Prevent Humanitarian Tragedy in Dominican Republic,” CNN, 23 June 2015.
    15. “Oprah Talks to Christiane Amanpour,” O, Oprah Magazine, September 2005. Unless otherwise noted, all quotations in this feature box are from this article.
    16. “How Christiane Amanpour Stumbled Into a Career in TV News,” TVNewser, 10 February 2016.
    17. Erik Ortiz, “George Holliday, Who Taped Rodney King Beating, Urges Others to Share Videos,” NBC, 9 June 2015.
    18. “Walter Cronkite’s ‘We Are Mired in Stalemate’ Broadcast, February 27, 1968” Digital History, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/act...m/cronkite.cfm (November 29, 2015).
    19. Joel Achenbach, “Cronkite and Vietnam,” Washington Post, 18 May 2012.
    20. Larry Sabato, “Our Leaders, Surprise, Have Strong Views,” New York Times, 23 February 2009.
    21. "Top 100 Political Blogs and Websites to Follow in 2021," Feedspot, 1 June 2021. https://blog.feedspot.com/political_blogs/.
    22. Fellow. American Media History.
    23. “Population in the Colonial and Continental Periods,” http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decenni...165897ch01.pdf (November 18, 2015); Fellow. American Media History.
    24. Fellow. American Media History.
    25. Lars Willnat and David H. Weaver. 2014. The American Journalist in the Digital Age: Key Findings. Bloomington, IN: School of Journalism, Indiana University.
    26. Felix Richter, "The Dramatic Decline of Print Advertising," 9 December 2019, https://www.statista.com/chart/20244...united-states/.
    27. “Facebook and Twitter—New but Limited Parts of the Local News System,” Pew Research Center, 5 March 2015.
    28. Lara Takenaga, "More Than 1 in 5 U.S. Papers Has Closed. This Is the Result." The New York Times, 21 December 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/21/r...s-deserts.html.
    29. Edward Smith, "A Declining Statehouse Press Corps Leaves Readers Less Informed about Lawmakers' Efforts," National Conference of State Legislatures, https://www.ncsl.org/press-room/sl-m...aring-act.aspx.
    30. “1940 Census,” http://www.census.gov/1940census (September 6, 2015).
    31. Steve Craig. 2009. Out of the Dark: A History of Radio and Rural America. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
    32. “Herbert Hoover: Radio Address to the Nation on Unemployment Relief,” The American Presidency Project, 18 October 1931, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=22855.
    33. “Franklin Delano Roosevelt: First Fireside Chat,” http://www.americanrhetoric.com/spee...esidechat.html (August 20, 2015).
    34. “The Fireside Chats,” https://www.history.com/topics/fireside-chats (November 20, 2015); Fellow. American Media History, 256.
    35. “FDR: A Voice of Hope,” http://www.history.com/topics/fireside-chats (September 10, 2015).
    36. Mary E. Stuckey. 2012. “FDR, the Rhetoric of Vision, and the Creation of a National Synoptic State.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 98, No. 3: 297–319.
    37. Fellow. American Media History.
    38. Sheila Marikar, “Howard Stern’s Five Most Outrageous Offenses,” ABC News, 14 May 2012.
    39. Mariel Soto Reyes, "Podcast Industry Report: Market Growth and Advertising Statistics in 2021," Insider, 23 Feb. 2021. https://www.businessinsider.com/the-...ndustry-report
    40. Andrew Delmar, "20 Celebrity Podcasts That Are A Must Listen!" We Edit Podcasts, https://www.weeditpodcasts.com/20-celebrity-podcasts/.
    41. Lee Huebner, “The Checkers Speech after 60 Years,” The Atlantic, 22 September 2012.
    42. Joel K. Goldstein, “Mondale-Ferraro: Changing History,” Huffington Post, 27 March 2011.
    43. Shanto Iyengar. 2016. Media Politics: A Citizen’s Guide, 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton.
    44. Bob Greene, “When Candidates said ‘No’ to Debates,” CNN, 1 October 2012.
    45. “The Ford/Carter Debates,” http://www.pbs.org/newshour/spc/deba...y/doc1976.html (November 21, 2015); Kayla Webley, “How the Nixon-Kennedy Debate Changed the World,” Time, 23 September 2010.
    46. Matthew A. Baum and Samuel Kernell. 1999. “Has Cable Ended the Golden Age of Presidential Television?” The American Political Science Review 93, No. 1: 99–114.
    47. Alan J. Lambert1, J. P. Schott1, and Laura Scherer. 2011. “Threat, Politics, and Attitudes toward a Greater Understanding of Rally-’Round-the-Flag Effects,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 20, No. 6: 343–348.
    48. Tim Groeling and Matthew A. Baum. 2008. “Crossing the Water’s Edge: Elite Rhetoric, Media Coverage, and the Rally-Round-the-Flag Phenomenon,” Journal of Politics 70, No. 4: 1065–1085.
    49. “William Jefferson Clinton: Oklahoma Bombing Memorial Prayer Service Address,” 23 April 1995, http://www.americanrhetoric.com/spee...bingspeech.htm.
    50. Ian Christopher McCaleb, “Bush tours ground zero in lower Manhattan,” CNN, 14 September 2001.
    51. “Presidential Job Approval Center,” http://www.gallup.com/poll/124922/pr...al-center.aspx (August 28, 2015).
    52. Alison Dagnes. 2010. Politics on Demand: The Effects of 24-hour News on American Politics. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
    53. “Number of Viewers of the State of the Union Addresses from 1993 to 2015 (in millions),” http://www.statista.com/statistics/2...viewer-numbers (August 28, 2015).
    54. Baum and Kernell, “Has Cable Ended the Golden Age of Presidential Television?”
    55. Shanto Iyengar. 2011. “The Media Game: New Moves, Old Strategies,” The Forum: Press Politics and Political Science 9, No. 1, http://pcl.stanford.edu/research/201...-mediagame.pdf.
    56. Billy Perrigo, "Facebook and Twitter Finally Locked Donald Trump's Accounts. Will They Ban Him Permanently?" TIME, 7 January 2021, https://time.com/5927398/facebook-tw...nsion-capitol/.
    57. Jeff Zeleny, “Lose the BlackBerry? Yes He Can, Maybe,” New York Times, 15 November 2008.
    58. Matthew Fraser and Soumitra Dutta, “Obama’s win means future elections must be fought online,” Guardian, 7 November 2008.
    59. Iyengar, “The Media Game.”
    60. David Corn. 29 July 2013. “Mitt Romeny’s Incredible 47-Percent Denial,” http://www.motherjones.com/mojo/2013...percent-denial.
    61. Ed Pilkington, “Obama Angers Midwest Voters with Guns and Religion Remark,” Guardian, 14 April 2008.
    62. Amy Mitchell, “State of the News Media 2015,” Pew Research Center, 29 April 2015.
    63. Tom Huddleston, Jr., “Jon Stewart Just Punched a $250 Million Hole in Viacom’s Value,” Fortune, 11 February 2015.
    64. John Zaller. 2003. “A New Standard of News Quality: Burglar Alarms for the Monitorial Citizen,” Political Communication 20, No. 2: 109–130.
    65. Matthew A. Baum. 2002. “Sex, Lies and War: How Soft News Brings Foreign Policy to the Inattentive Public,” American Political Science Review 96, no. 1: 91–109.
    66. Matthew Baum. 2003. “Soft News and Political Knowledge: Evidence of Absence or Absence of Evidence?” Political Communication 20, No. 2: 173–190.
    67. “Public Knowledge of Current Affairs Little Changed by News and Information Revolutions,” Pew Research Center, 15 April 2007; “What You Know Depends on What You Watch: Current Events Knowledge across Popular News Sources,” Fairleigh Dickinson University, 3 May 2012, http://publicmind.fdu.edu/2012/confirmed/.
    68. Markus Prior. 2003. “Any Good News in Soft News? The Impact of Soft News Preference on Political Knowledge,” Political Communication 20, No. 2: 149–171.
    69. Fellow. American Media History.
    70. New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964).
    71. Jill Serjeant, “Katie Holmes Settles Libel Suit on Drugs Claim,” Reuters, 28 April 2011, http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/...73Q7K620110428.
    72. Christ Plante, “Military Kicks Geraldo Out of Iraq,” CNN, 31 March 2003.
    73. Chapter 4—Radio Act of 1927, http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?p...edition=prelim (May 19, 2016).
    74. “Statutes and Rules on Candidate Appearances & Advertising,” https://transition.fcc.gov/mb/policy...l/candrule.htm. Section 73.1942 [47 CFR §73.1942] Candidate rates. (November 21, 2015).
    75. “Statutes and Rules,” Section 73.1941 [47 CFR §73.1941] Equal Opportunities.
    76. Eric Deggans, “It’s Not Hosting SNL, But NBC Will Give ‘Equal Time’ To 4 GOP Candidates,” National Public Radio, 24 November 2015.
    77. “47 U.S. Code § 315 - Candidates for public office,” Legal Information Institute, https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/47/315.
    78. Joel Roberts, “Arnold’s Movies Face TV Blackout,” CBS News, 13 August 2003; Gary Susman, “Arnold’s Movies Go off the Air until Election,” Entertainment Weekly, 13 August 2003.
    79. David Schultz and John R. Vile. 2015. The Encyclopedia of Civil Liberties in America.
    80. Sue Wilson, “FCC: No More Equal Time Requirements for Political Campaign Supporters over Our Public Airwaves,” Huffington Post, 15 May 2014.
    81. William Lake, Letter from the FCC Regarding Capstar Texas LLX, 8 May 2014, http://bradblog.com/Docs/FCC_ZappleD...ing_050814.pdf.
    82. Syracuse Peace Council vs. FCC, 867 F.2d 654 (1989); Katy Steinmetz, “The Death of the Fairness Doctrine,” Time, 23 August 2011.
    83. “Obscenity, Indecency, and Profanity,” FCC, https://www.fcc.gov/encyclopedia/obs...-and-profanity (September 10, 2015).
    84. Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973).
    85. “Obscenity,” Legal Information Institute at Cornell University, https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/obscenity (November 29, 2015).
    86. “Consumer Help Center: Obscene, Indecent, and Profane Broadcasts,” FCC, https://consumercomplaints.fcc.gov/h...ane-Broadcasts (September 10, 2015).
    87. FCC vs. Pacifica Foundation, 438 U.S. 726 (1978).
    88. “Obscenity, Indecency and Profanity,” Federal Communications Commission, https://consumercomplaints.fcc.gov/h...-Data-Overview.
    89. Jason Molinet, “TV Watchdog Slams ABC for Sex-filled ‘Scandal’ Opening Immediately After ‘Charlie Brown’ Special,” Daily News, 4 November 2104.
    90. “The Fallout from the Telecommunications Act of 1996: Unintended Consequences and Lessons Learned,” Common Cause, 9 May 2005; Mark Baumgartner, “Average Cable Rates on the Rise,” ABC News, February 15, http://abcnews.go.com/Business/story?id=88614&page=1.
    91. Keith Collins, “Net Neutrality Has Officially Been Repealed. Here’s How That Could Affect You.”, New York Times, 11 June 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/11/t...ty-repeal.html.
    92. Kimberly Adams, "To undo Trump’s net neutrality policy, the Biden admin drops a lawsuit," Marketplace, 9 February 2021, https://www.marketplace.org/2021/02/...ality-lawsuit/
    93. Lauren Feiner, "Mozilla leads push for FCC to reinstate net neutrality," CNBC, 19 March 2021, https://www.cnbc.com/2021/03/19/mozi...eutrality.html.
    94. Dana Hughes and Dan Childs, “Hillary Clinton’s Glasses are for Concussion, Not Fashion,” ABC News, 25 January 2013.
    95. Mary Bruce, “Hillary Clinton Took 6 Months to ‘Get Over’ Concussion, Bill Says of Timeline,” ABC News, 14 May 2014.
    96. Dan Merica, “Clinton Campaign, Republicans Clash Over Benghazi Testimony,” CNN, 25 July 2015.
    97. Alex Seitz-Wald, “Kevin McCarthy Credits Benghazi Committee for Clinton Damage,” MSNBC, 30 September 2015.
    98. “The Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C.”, The United States Department of Justice, http://www.justice.gov/oip/blog/foia...4-231-110-stat (September 7, 2015).
    99. Ibid.
    100. Fellow. American Media History.
    101. “What is FOIA?” The Department of Justice, http://www.foia.gov/index.html (September 8, 2015).
    102. Courtney Kueppers, "The Flip Side of FOIA: Mountains of Paper, Small Government Staffs and — for Some — an Attitude Problem," Chicago Tribune, 9 April 2021. https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/...s7i-story.html.
    103. Fellow. American Media History.
    104. Ibid.
    105. Ibid.
    106. Christopher Beam, “The TMI President,” Slate, 12 November 2008.
    107. Fellow. American Media History, 388.
    108. Manuel Roig-Franzia and Sarah Ellison, "A History of the Trump War on Media — the Obsession Not Even Coronavirus Could Stop," The Washington Post, 29 March 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifes...127_story.html.
    109. Bob Woodward, “How Mark Felt Became ‘Deep Throat,’” The Washington Post, 20 June 2005.
    110. Don Van Natta Jr., Adam Liptak, and Clifford J. Levy, “The Miller Case: A Notebook, a Cause, a Jail Cell and a Deal,” The New York Times, 16 October 2005.
    111. Branzburg v. Hayes, 408 U.S. 665 (1972).
    112. Adam Liptak, “A Justice’s Scribbles on Journalists Rights,” New York Times, 7 October 2007.
    113. Matt Apuzzo, “Times Reporter Will Not Be Called to Testify in Leak,” New York Times, 12 January 2015.
    114. Walter Lippmann. 1922. Public Opinion. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/Li.../contents.html (August 29, 2015).
    115. Bernard Berelson, Paul Lazarsfeld, and William McPhee. 1954. Voting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    116. George Gerbner, Larry Gross, Michael Morgan, Nancy Signorielli, and Marilyn Jackson-Beeck. 1979. “The Demonstration of Power: Violence Profile,” Journal of Communication 29, No.10: 177–196.
    117. Elizabeth A. Skewes. 2007. Message Control: How News Is Made on the Presidential Campaign Trail. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 79.
    118. Stephen Farnsworth and S. Robert Lichter. 2012. “Authors’ Response: Improving News Coverage in the 2012 Presidential Campaign and Beyond,” Politics & Policy 40, No. 4: 547–556.
    119. “Early Media Coverage Focuses on Horse Race,” PBS News Hour, 12 June 2007.
    120. Stephen Ansolabehere, Roy Behr, and Shanto Iyengar. 1992. The Media Game: American Politics in the Television Age. New York: Macmillan.
    121. “Frames of Campaign Coverage,” Pew Research Center, 23 April 2012, http://www.journalism.org/2012/04/23...paign-coverage.
    122. Kiku Adatto. May 28, 1990. “The Incredible Shrinking Sound Bite,” New Republic 202, No. 22: 20–23.
    123. Erik Bucy and Maria Elizabeth Grabe. 2007. “Taking Television Seriously: A Sound and Image Bite Analysis of Presidential Campaign Coverage, 1992–2004,” Journal of Communication 57, No. 4: 652–675.
    124. Craig Fehrman, “The Incredible Shrinking Sound Bite,” Boston Globe, 2 January 2011, http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/id...ng_sound_bite/.
    125. “Crossfire: Jon Stewart’s America,” CNN, 15 October 2004, http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0410/15/cf.01.html.
    126. Paul Begala, “Begala: The day Jon Stewart blew up my show,” CNN, 12 February 2015.
    127. Pew Research Center: Journalism & Media Staff, “Coverage of the Candidates by Media Sector and Cable Outlet,” 1 November 2012.
    128. Mark Jurkowitz and Amy Mitchell, "Cable TV and COVID-19: How Americans Perceive the Outbreak and View Media Coverage Differ by Main News Source," Pew Research Center, 1 April 2020, https://www.journalism.org/2020/04/0...n-news-source/.
    129. “Winning the Media Campaign 2012,” Pew Research Center, 2 November 2012.
    130. Fred Greenstein. 2009. The Presidential Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    131. “Dan Rather versus Richard Nixon, 1974,” YouTube video, :46, from the National Association of Broadcasters annual convention in Houston on March 19,1974, posted by “thecelebratedmisterk,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZGBLAKq8xwc (November 30, 2015); “‘A Conversation With the President,’ Interview With Dan Rather of the Columbia Broadcasting System,” The American Presidency Project, 2 January 1972, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=3351.
    132. Wolf Blitzer, “Dan Rather’s Stand,” CNN, 10 September 2004.
    133. Michael M. Grynbaum. 13 November 2018. “CNN Sues Trump Administration for Barring Jim Acosta from White House.” New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/13/b...p-lawsuit.html. Paul Farhi. 24 February 2017. “The Washington Post’s New Slogan Turns Out to Be an Old Saying.” https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifes...=.f8a0e1c5ef97.
    134. Matthew Eshbaugh-Soha and Jeffrey Peake. 2011. Breaking Through the Noise: Presidential Leadership, Public Opinion, and the News Media. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    135. Ibid.
    136. Gary Lee Malecha and Daniel J. Reagan. 2011. The Public Congress: Congressional Deliberation in a New Media Age. New York: Routledge.
    137. Frank R. Baumgartner, Bryan D. Jones, and Beth L. Leech. 1997. “Media Attention and Congressional Agendas,” In Do The Media Govern? Politicians, Voters, and Reporters in America, eds. Shanto Iyengar and Richard Reeves. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    138. George Edwards and Dan Wood. 1999. “Who Influences Whom? The President, Congress, and the Media,” American Political Science Review 93, No 2: 327–344; Yue Tan and David Weaver. 2007. “Agenda-Setting Effects Among the Media, the Public, and Congress, 1946–2004,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 84, No. 4: 729–745.
    139. Ally Fogg, “Crime Is Falling. Now Let’s Reduce Fear of Crime,” Guardian, 24 April 24 2013.
    140. Travis L. Dixon. 2008. “Crime News and Racialized Beliefs: Understanding the Relationship between Local News Viewing and Perceptions of African Americans and Crime,” Journal of Communication 58, No. 1: 106–125.
    141. Travis Dixon. 2015. “Good Guys Are Still Always in White? Positive Change and Continued Misrepresentation of Race and Crime on Local Television News,” Communication Research, doi:10.1177/0093650215579223.
    142. Travis L. Dixon. 2008. “Network News and Racial Beliefs: Exploring the Connection between National Television News Exposure and Stereotypical Perceptions of African Americans,” Journal of Communication 58, No. 2: 321–337.
    143. Martin Gilens. 1996. “Race and Poverty in America: Public Misperceptions and the American News Media,” Public Opinion Quarterly 60, No. 4: 515–541.
    144. Dixon. “Crime News and Racialized Beliefs.”
    145. Gilens. “Race and Poverty in America.”
    146. Shanto Iyengar and Donald R. Kinder. 1987. News That Matters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    147. Daniel C. Hallin. 2015. “The Dynamics of Immigration Coverage in Comparative Perspective,” American Behavioral Scientist 59, No. 7: 876–885.
    148. Kay Mills. 1996. “What Difference Do Women Journalists Make?” In Women, the Media and Politics, ed. Pippa Norris. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 43.
    149. Kim Fridkin Kahn and Edie N. Goldenberg. 1997. “The Media: Obstacle or Ally of Feminists?” In Do the Media Govern? eds. Shanto Iyengar and Richard Reeves. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    150. Barbara Walters, “Ms. Walters Reflects,” Vanity Fair, 31 May 2008,
    151. Mills. “What Difference Do Women Journalists Make?”
    152. Mills. “What Difference Do Women Journalists Make?”
    153. Kahn and Goldenberg, “The Media: Obstacle or Ally of Feminists?”
    154. Kim Fridkin Kahn. 1994. “Does Gender Make a Difference? An Experimental Examination of Sex Stereotypes and Press Patterns in Statewide Campaigns,” American Journal of Political Science 38, No. 1: 162–195.
    155. John David Rausch, Mark Rozell, and Harry L. Wilson. 1999. “When Women Lose: A Study of Media Coverage of Two Gubernatorial Campaigns,” Women & Politics 20, No. 4: 1–22.
    156. Sarah Allen Gershon. 2013. “Media Coverage of Minority Congresswomen and Voter Evaluations: Evidence from an Online Experimental Study,” Political Research Quarterly 66, No. 3: 702–714.
    157. Jennifer Lawless and Richard Logan Fox. 2005. It Takes a Candidate: Why Women Don’t Run for Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    158. Brittany L. Stalsburg, “Running with Strollers: The Impact of Family Life on Political Ambition,” Eagleton Institute of Politics, Spring 2012, Unpublished Paper, http://www.eagleton.rutgers.edu/rese...l-Ambition.pdf (August 28, 2015).
    159. Christina Walker, “Is Sarah Palin Being Held to an Unfair Standard?” CNN, 8 September 2008.

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