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4: Students with Intellectual Disabilities
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- 4.1: Definitions of Intellectual Disabilities
- There are three primary definitions of intellectual disabilities. These include definitions from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association.
- 4.2: The History of Intellectual Disabilities
- Before the passage of Rosa’s Law (Office of the Federal Register, 2010), this disability category was referred to as “mental retardation.” Rosa’s Law replaced this term with “intellectual disabilities” in the Rehabilitation Act, the Higher Education Act, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and the IDEA.
- 4.3: Prevalence and Causes of Intellectual Disabilities
- Among students receiving special education services, 6% percent are identified as having an intellectual disability (National Center for Education Statistics, 2022).
- 4.4: Prevention of Intellectual Disabilities
- Efforts have been made to reduce the prevalence of intellectual disabilities. The AAIDD has identified three levels of intervention.
- 4.5: Characteristics of Students with Intellectual Disabilities
- Students with intellectual disabilities experience academic challenges resulting from their deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. Students may experience academic challenges related to attention, memory, generalization, and language.
- 4.6: Identifying Students with Intellectual Disabilities
- As identified earlier in this chapter, children may be diagnosed with an intellectual disability resulting from genetic or other environmental causes before they reach school age.
- 4.7: Chapter Questions and References