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13: At-Risk Students

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    In Chapter 1, we learned that early intervention services are provided to infants and toddlers under the age of 3 who have a disability or are exhibiting developmental delays. These children are considered at-risk infants and toddlers. In this chapter, we will discuss the federal and state definitions of at-risk and how at-risk students are identified. 

    • 13.1: Definitions of At-Risk
      The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) defines an at-risk infant or toddler as an individual under three years of age who would be at risk of experiencing a substantial developmental delay if early intervention services were not provided to the individual.
    • 13.2: The History of Head Start and At-Risk Programming
      In the 1960s, Lyndon B. Johnson’s administration, influenced by research on the effects of poverty on children, assembled a group of experts to develop a program that supported the needs of young children living in poverty who were at risk of school failure.
    • 13.3: Prevalence of At-Risk Students
      In 2020, approximately 3% of all children from birth through age 3 received early intervention services under IDEA Part C, the Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities (IDEA Section 618 Data Products, 2022).
    • 13.4: At-Risk Factors
      There are a number of factors that indicate a student might be at risk for academic failure (i.e., risk factors). Risk factors are not causes of academic failure but may contribute to the likelihood of academic failure.
    • 13.5: Identifying At-Risk Students
      Under IDEA, states must identify and provide services for at-risk infants and toddlers. Medical professionals are the first to refer families for early intervention services immediately after birth.
    • 13.6: Chapter Questions and References

    This page titled 13: At-Risk Students is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Diana Zaleski (Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois (CARLI)) .

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