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Review Questions

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    In the harmful dysfunction definition of psychological disorders, dysfunction involves ________.

    1. the inability of a psychological mechanism to perform its function
    2. the breakdown of social order in one’s community
    3. communication problems in one’s immediate family
    4. all the above

    Patterns of inner experience and behavior are thought to reflect the presence of a psychological disorder if they ________.

    1. are highly atypical
    2. lead to significant distress and impairment in one’s life
    3. embarrass one’s friends and/or family
    4. violate the norms of one’s culture

    The letters in the abbreviation DSM-5 stand for ________.

    1. Diseases and Statistics Manual of Medicine
    2. Diagnosable Standards Manual of Mental Disorders
    3. Diseases and Symptoms Manual of Mental Disorders
    4. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    A study based on over 9,000 U. S. residents found that the most prevalent disorder was ________.

    1. major depressive disorder
    2. social anxiety disorder
    3. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    4. specific phobia

    The diathesis-stress model presumes that psychopathology results from ________.

    1. vulnerability and adverse experiences
    2. biochemical factors
    3. chemical imbalances and structural abnormalities in the brain
    4. adverse childhood experiences

    Dr. Anastasia believes that major depressive disorder is caused by an over-secretion of cortisol. His view on the cause of major depressive disorder reflects a ________ perspective.

    1. psychological
    2. supernatural
    3. biological
    4. diathesis-stress

    In which of the following anxiety disorders is the person in a continuous state of excessive, pointless worry and apprehension?

    1. panic disorder
    2. generalized anxiety disorder
    3. agoraphobia
    4. social anxiety disorder

    Which of the following would constitute a safety behavior?

    1. encountering a phobic stimulus in the company of other people
    2. avoiding a field where snakes are likely to be present
    3. avoiding eye contact
    4. worrying as a distraction from painful memories

    Which of the following best illustrates a compulsion?

    1. mentally counting backward from 1,000
    2. persistent fear of germs
    3. thoughts of harming a neighbor
    4. falsely believing that a spouse has been cheating

    Research indicates that the symptoms of OCD ________.

    1. are similar to the symptoms of panic disorder
    2. are triggered by low levels of stress hormones
    3. are related to hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex
    4. are reduced if people are asked to view photos of stimuli that trigger the symptoms

    Symptoms of PTSD include all of the following except ________.

    1. intrusive thoughts or memories of a traumatic event
    2. avoidance of things that remind one of a traumatic event
    3. jumpiness
    4. physical complaints that cannot be explained medically

    Which of the following elevates the risk for developing PTSD?

    1. severity of the trauma
    2. frequency of the trauma
    3. high levels of intelligence
    4. social support

    Common symptoms of major depressive disorder include all of the following except ________.

    1. periods of extreme elation and euphoria
    2. difficulty concentrating and making decisions
    3. loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities
    4. psychomotor agitation and retardation

    Suicide rates are ________ among men than among women, and they are ________ during the winter holiday season than during the spring months.

    1. higher; higher
    2. lower; lower
    3. higher; lower
    4. lower; higher

    Clifford falsely believes that the police have planted secret cameras in his home to monitor his every movement. Clifford’s belief is an example of ________.

    1. a delusion
    2. a hallucination
    3. tangentiality
    4. a negative symptom

    A study of adoptees whose biological mothers had schizophrenia found that the adoptees were most likely to develop schizophrenia ________.

    1. if their childhood friends later developed schizophrenia
    2. if they abused drugs during adolescence
    3. if they were raised in a disturbed adoptive home environment
    4. regardless of whether they were raised in a healthy or disturbed home environment

    Dissociative amnesia involves ________.

    1. memory loss following head trauma
    2. memory loss following stress
    3. feeling detached from the self
    4. feeling detached from the world

    Dissociative identity disorder mainly involves ________.

    1. depersonalization
    2. derealization
    3. schizophrenia
    4. different personalities

    Which of the following is not a primary characteristic of ADHD?

    1. short attention span
    2. difficulty concentrating and distractibility
    3. restricted and fixated interest
    4. excessive fidgeting and squirming

    One of the primary characteristics of autism spectrum disorder is ________.

    1. bed-wetting
    2. difficulty relating to others
    3. short attention span
    4. intense and inappropriate interest in others

    People with borderline personality disorder often ________.

    1. try to be the center of attention
    2. are shy and withdrawn
    3. are impulsive and unpredictable
    4. tend to accomplish goals through cruelty

    Antisocial personality disorder is associated with ________.

    1. emotional deficits
    2. memory deficits
    3. parental overprotection
    4. increased empathy

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