By Ayelet Fishbach and Maferima Touré-Tillery
The Origins and Manifestation of Goals
Consequences of Goal Activation
Self-Regulation in Goal Pursuit
From Deliberation to Implementation
Regulation of Ought- and Ideals-Goals
A Cybernetic Process of Self-Regulation
Highlighting One Goal or Balancing Between Goals
Conflicting Goals and Self-Control
Self-Control as an Innate Ability
Self-Control as a Limited Resource
A Prerequisite to Self-Control: Identification
Self-Control Processes: Counteracting Temptation
- Balancing between goals
- Shifting between a focal goal and other goals or temptations by putting less effort into the focal goal—usually with the intention of coming back to the focal goal at a later point in time.
- The sense that a goal is both valuable and attainable
- Conscious goal activation
- When a person is fully aware of contextual influences and resulting goal-directed behavior.
- Deliberative phase
- The first of the two basic stages of self-regulation in which individuals decide which of many potential goals to pursue at a given point in time.
- The exhaustion of physiological and/or psychological resources following the completion of effortful self-control tasks, which subsequently leads to reduction in the capacity to exert more self-control.
- Extrinsic motivation
- Motivation stemming from the benefits associated with achieving a goal such as obtaining a monetary reward.
- The cognitive representation of a desired state (outcome).
- Goal priming
- The activation of a goal following exposure to cues in the immediate environment related to the goal or its corresponding means (e.g., images, words, sounds).
- Highlighting a goal
- Prioritizing a focal goal over other goals or temptations by putting more effort into the focal goal.
- Implemental phase
- The second of the two basic stages of self-regulation in which individuals plan specific actions related to their selected goal.
- Intrinsic motivation
- Motivation stemming from the benefits associated with the process of pursuing a goal such as having a fulfilling experience.
- Activities or objects that contribute to goal attainment.
- The psychological driving force that enables action in the course of goal pursuit.
- Nonconscious goal activation
- When activation occurs outside a person’s awareness, such that the person is unaware of the reasons behind her goal-directed thoughts and behaviors.
- Prevention focus
- One of two self-regulatory orientations emphasizing safety, responsibility, and security needs, and viewing goals as “oughts.” This self-regulatory focus seeks to avoid losses (the presence of negatives) and approach non-losses (the absence of negatives).
- The perception of reducing the discrepancy between one’s current state and one’s desired state in goal pursuit.
- Promotion focus
- One of two self-regulatory orientations emphasizing hopes, accomplishments, and advancement needs, and viewing goals as “ideals.” This self-regulatory focus seeks to approach gains (the presence of positives) and avoid non-gains (the absence of positives).
- The capacity to control impulses, emotions, desires, and actions in order to resist a temptation and adhere to a valued goal.
- The processes through which individuals alter their emotions, desires, and actions in the course of pursuing a goal.