Skip to main content
14.6: End-of-Chapter Material
- Last updated
Save as PDF
- Urbanization is a consequence of population growth. Cities first developed in ancient times after the rise of horticultural and pastoral societies and “took off” during the Industrial Revolution as people moved to be near factories. Urbanization led to many social changes then and continues today to affect society.
- Functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism offer varied understandings of urbanization. Functionalists have a mixed view of urbanization, while conflict theorists hold a negative view.
- Cities face many problems, several of which reflect the fact that cities feature large numbers of people living within a relatively small space. Among the most serious of these problems are residential crowding, substandard and racially segregated housing, heavy traffic and great amounts of air pollution, and high crime rates.
- Rural areas face many challenges that result from their sparse populations and the great distances that people must often travel. Among other problems, rural areas have a lack of economic opportunities in today’s information age and a general lack of various kinds of human services.
Using What You Know
What You Can Do
- Volunteer at a social service agency in your community.
- Start or join a Habitat for Humanity or other group that builds homes for low-income families.
- Attend local city council meetings to learn about budgetary issues so that you will be in a more knowledgeable position to help your community.