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Key Terms Chapter 02: Sociological Research

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    Example and Directions
    Words (or words that have the same definition)The definition is case sensitive(Optional) Image to display with the definition [Not displayed in Glossary, only in pop-up on pages](Optional) Caption for Image(Optional) External or Internal Link(Optional) Source for Definition
    (Eg. "Genetic, Hereditary, DNA ...")(Eg. "Relating to genes or heredity")The infamous double helix; Delmar Larsen
    Glossary Entries
    Case Studyin-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual    
    Code of Ethicsa set of guidelines that the American Sociological Association has established to foster ethical research and professionally responsible scholarship in sociology    
    Content Analysisapplying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand    
    Correlationwhen a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable, but does not necessarily indicate causation    
    Dependent Variablesa variable changed by other variables    
    Empirical Evidenceevidence that comes from direct experience, scientifically gathered data, or experimentation    
    Ethnographyobserving a complete social setting and all that it entails    
    Experimentthe testing of a hypothesis under controlled conditions    
    Field Researchgathering data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or a survey    
    Hawthorne Effectwhen study subjects behave in a certain manner due to their awareness of being observed by a researcher    
    Hypothesisa testable educated guess about predicted outcomes between two or more variables    
    Independent vVriablesvariables that cause changes in dependent variables    
    Interpretive Frameworka sociological research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; this approach is not based on hypothesis testing    
    Interviewa one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject    
    Literature Reviewa scholarly research step that entails identifying and studying all existing studies on a topic to create a basis for new research    
    Meta-analysisa technique in which the results of virtually all previous studies on a specific subject are evaluated together    
    Nonreactive Researchusing secondary data, does not include direct contact with subjects and will not alter or influence people’s behaviors    
    Operational Definitionsspecific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study    
    Participant Observationwhen a researcher immerses herself in a group or social setting in order to make observations from an “insider” perspective    
    Populationa defined group serving as the subject of a study    
    Primary Datadata that are collected directly from firsthand experience    
    Qualitative Datacomprise information that is subjective and often based on what is seen in a natural setting    
    Quantitative Datarepresent research collected in numerical form that can be counted    
    Random Samplea study’s participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger population    
    Reliabilitya measure of a study’s consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced    
    Samplessmall, manageable number of subjects that represent the population    
    Scientific Methodan established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusions    
    Secondary Data Analysisusing data collected by others but applying new interpretations    
    Surveyscollect data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire    
    Validitythe degree to which a sociological measure accurately reflects the topic of study    
    Value Neutralitya practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment during the course of a study and in publishing results    
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