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Key Terms Chapter 20: Population, Urbanization, and the Environment

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    Example and Directions
    Words (or words that have the same definition)The definition is case sensitive(Optional) Image to display with the definition [Not displayed in Glossary, only in pop-up on pages](Optional) Caption for Image(Optional) External or Internal Link(Optional) Source for Definition
    (Eg. "Genetic, Hereditary, DNA ...")(Eg. "Relating to genes or heredity")The infamous double helix; Delmar Larsen
    Glossary Entries
    Sustainable Developmentdevelopment that occurs without depleting or damaging the natural environment    
    Asylum-seekersthose whose claim to refugee status have not been validated    
    Cancer Clustera geographic area with high levels of cancer within its population    
    Carrying Capacitythe amount of people that can live in a given area considering the amount of available resources    
    Climate Changelong-term shifts in temperature and climate due to human activity    
    Concentric Zone Modela model of human ecology that views cities as a series of circular rings or zones    
    Cornucopian Theorya theory that asserts human ingenuity will rise to the challenge of providing adequate resources for a growing population    
    Demographic Transition Theorya theory that describes four stages of population growth, following patterns that connect birth and death rates with stages of industrial development    
    Demographythe study of population    
    E-wastethe disposal of broken, obsolete, and worn-out electronics    
    Environmental Racismthe burdening of economically and socially disadvantaged communities with a disproportionate share of environmental hazards    
    Environmental Sociologythe sociological subfield that addresses the relationship between humans and the environment    
    Exurbscommunities that arise farther out than the suburbs and are typically populated by residents of high socioeconomic status    
    Fertility Ratea measure noting the actual number of children born    
    Frackinghydraulic fracturing, a method used to recover gas and oil from shale by drilling down into the earth and directing a high-pressure mixture of water, sand, and proprietary chemicals into the rock    
    Gentrificationthe entry of upper- and middle-class residents to city areas or communities that have been historically less affluent    
    Human Ecologya functional perspective that looks at the relationship between people and their built and natural environment    
    Internally Displaced Personsomeone who fled his or her home while remaining inside the country’s borders    
    Malthusian Theorya theory asserting that population is controlled through positive checks (war, famine, disease) and preventive checks (measures to reduce fertility)    
    Megalopolisa large urban corridor that encompasses several cities and their surrounding suburbs and exurbs    
    Metropolisthe area that includes a city and its suburbs and exurbs    
    Mortality Ratea measure of the number of people in a population who die    
    NIMBY“Not In My Back Yard,” the tendency of people to protest poor environmental practices when those practices will affect them directly    
    Pollutionthe introduction of contaminants into an environment at levels that are damaging    
    Population Compositiona snapshot of the demographic profile of a population based on fertility, mortality, and migration rates    
    Population Pyramida graphic representation that depicts population distribution according to age and sex    
    Refugeean individual who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster    
    Sex Ratiothe ratio of men to women in a given population    
    Suburbsthe communities surrounding cities, typically close enough for a daily commute    
    Urban Sociologythe subfield of sociology that focuses on the study of urbanization    
    Urbanizationthe study of the social, political, and economic relationships of cities    
    White Flightthe migration of economically secure white people from racially mixed urban areas toward the suburbs    
    Zero Population Growtha theoretical goal in which the number of people entering a population through birth or immigration is equal to the number of people leaving it via death or emigration    
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