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1.2: The History of Sociology
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- 1.2A: Tradition vs. Science
- Social scientists began to adopt the scientific method to make sense of the rapid changes accompanying modernization and industrialization.
- 1.2B: Early Thinkers and Comte
- One of the most influential early figures in sociology was Auguste Comte who proposed a positivist sociology with a scientific base.
- 1.2C: Early Social Research and Martineau
- Harriet Martineau was an English social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the first female sociologist.
- 1.2D: Spencer and Social Darwinism
- Herbert Spencer created what he called “sociology,” a synthetic philosophy that tried to find a set of rules explaining social behavior.
- 1.2E: Class Conflict and Marx
- Marx focuses on explaining class conflict due to the means of production, which he posited was the driving force behind social evolution.
- 1.2F: Durkheim and Social Integration
- Emile Durkheim studied how societies maintained social integration after traditional bonds were replaced by modern economic relations.
- 1.2G: Durkheim and Social Integration
- 1.2H: Protestant Work Ethic and Weber
- Weber departed from positivist sociology, instead emphasizing Verstehen, or understanding, as the goal of sociology.
- 1.2I: The Development of Sociology in the U.S.
- Lester Ward, the first president of the American Sociological Association, is generally thought of as the founder of American sociological study.