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2.6: Conclusion, Glossary, References

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    This chapter addresses ethics in public speaking. As ethics is an important part of our daily lives, it also plays a significant role in any public speaking situation. This chapter defines ethics and provides guidelines for practicing ethics in public speaking and listening. An ethical public speaker considers how to be honest and avoid plagiarism by taking notes during the research process, identifying sources, and deciding when it is appropriate to cite sources. Ethical public speakers also cite sources properly by understanding how to paraphrase and directly quote sources. In addition, they know how to cite in written speech materials, during oral presentations, and on visual aids.

    Ethical speakers strive to achieve responsible speech goals by promoting gender, racial, and cultural diversity, using inclusive language, refraining from using hate speech, raising social awareness about important issues when possible, and understanding the balance of free speech with responsibility to audience members. Ethical listeners consider their responsibilities when both listening and providing feedback to speakers. Ethical feedback is explanatory and descriptive. With this improved understanding of how to prepare and present a speech ethically, you can accomplish the goal of ethical public speaking. Consider ethics as you learn about the public speaking process in upcoming chapters.

    Review Questions and Activities

    1. Where did ethics originate? How are ethics used in public speaking?
    2. What is plagiarism? What is the difference between global and patchwork plagiarism?
    3. What is the difference between paraphrasing and directly quoting a source?
    4. What free speech rights are granted to a speaker?
    5. Why is raising social awareness an ethical concern when preparing a speech?
    6. What are some ways to use language ethically in presentations?


    Direct Quote
    A direct quote is any sentence that conveys the primary source’s idea word-for-word.
    Diversity is an appreciation for differences among individuals and groups.
    Ethical Feedback
    Ethical feedback is descriptive and explanatory feedback for a speaker. Ethical feedback can be positive praise or constructive criticism.
    Ethical Listener
    A listener who actively interprets shared material and analyzes the speech content and speaker’s effectiveness.
    Ethical Communication
    Ethical communication is an exchange of responsible and trustworthy messages determined by our moral principles.
    Ethical Standards
    Rules of acceptable conduct, that when followed promote values such as trust, good behavior, fairness and/or kindness.
    Ethics is the process of determining what is good or bad, right or wrong in a moral dilemma.
    Global Plagiarism
    Global plagiarism is plagiarism that occurs when a speaker uses an entire work that is not his/her own.
    Hate Language
    Hate language is the use of words or phrases that isolate a particular person or group in a derogatory manner.
    Incremental Plagiarism
    Incremental plagiarism is plagiarism that occurs when most of the speech is the speaker’s original work, but quotes or other information have been used without being cited.
    Listening is the process of interpreting, or making sense of, sounds.
    Morality is the process of discerning between right and wrong.
    A paraphrase is any sentence that shares learned information in the speaker’s own words.
    Patchwork Plagiarism
    Patchwork plagiarism is plagiarism that occurs when one patches together bits and pieces from one or more sources and represents the end result as his or her own.
    Plagiarism is when one passes off another’s work as his/her own or neglects to cite a source for his/her information.
    Social Awareness
    Social awareness is the recognition of important issues that affect societies.
    “We” Language
    “We” Language includes the use of pronouns and phrases that unite the speaker to the audience.


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