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12.1: Persuasion - An Overview

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    Learning Objectives
    1. Define and explain persuasion.
    2. Explain the three theories of persuasion discussed in the text: social judgment theory, cognitive dissonance theory, and the elaboration likelihood model.
    The President's podium

    In his text The Dynamics of Persuasion: Communication and Attitudes in the 21st Century, Perloff (2003) noted that the study of persuasion today is extremely important for five basic reasons:

    1. The sheer number of persuasive communications has grown exponentially.
    2. Persuasive messages travel faster than ever before.
    3. Persuasion has become institutionalized.
    4. Persuasive communication has become more subtle and devious.
    5. Persuasive communication is more complex than ever before.

    Since 2003 (a year before Facebook was founded) when Perloff argued these reasons, we have seen an explosion in persuasive messages with the advent and growth of social media. The social media phenomenon has supercharged the reasons outlined by Perloff. In essence, the nature of persuasion has changed over the last fifty years as a result of the influx of various types of technology. People are bombarded by persuasive messages in today’s world, so thinking about how to create persuasive messages effectively is very important for modern public speakers. A century (or even half a century) ago, public speakers had to contend only with the words printed on paper for attracting and holding an audience’s attention. Today, public speakers must contend with laptops, tablets, smartphones, billboards, television sets, and many other tools that can send a range of persuasive messages immediately to a target audience. Thankfully, scholars who study persuasion have kept up with the changing times and have found a number of persuasive strategies that help speakers be more persuasive.

    What Is Persuasion?

    Persuasion is an attempt to get a person to behave in a manner, or embrace a point of view related to values, attitudes, and beliefs, that they would not have done otherwise.

    Change Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs

    The first type of persuasive public speaking involves a change in someone’s attitudes, values, and beliefs.

    Attitude is defined as an individual’s general predisposition toward something. This predisposition can be positive (good, right, etc.), negative (bad, wrong, etc.), or neutral. For example, maybe you believe that local curfew laws for people under the age of 18 are a bad idea, so you want to persuade others to adopt a negative attitude toward such laws.

    Value refers to an individual’s perception of the usefulness, importance, or worth of something. We can assign a value to college education, technology, or freedom. You can attempt to persuade an individual to change their value toward something. Values, as a general concept, are fairly ambiguous and tend to be very lofty ideas. Ultimately, what we place a high value on in life, actually motivates us to engage in a range of behaviors. For example, if you highly value technology, you are more likely to seek out new technology or software on your own. On the contrary, if you do not place a high value on technology, you are less likely to seek out new technology or software unless someone, or some circumstance, requires you to.

    Beliefs are propositions or positions that an individual holds as true or false without positive knowledge or proof. You can attempt to get people to change their personal beliefs. Typically, beliefs are divided into two basic categories: core and dispositional. Core beliefs are beliefs that people have actively engaged in and created over the course of their lives (e.g., belief in a higher power, belief in extraterrestrial life forms). Dispositional beliefs, on the other hand, are beliefs that people have not actively engaged in but rather judgments that they make, based on their knowledge of related subjects, when they encounter a proposition. For example, imagine that you were asked the question, “Can stock cars reach speeds of one thousand miles per hour on a one-mile oval track?” Even though you may have never attended a stock car race or even seen one on television, you can make split-second judgments about your understanding of automobile speeds and say with a fair degree of certainty that you believe stock cars cannot travel at one thousand miles per hour on a one-mile track. We sometimes refer to dispositional beliefs as virtual beliefs (Frankish, 1998).

    It is no surprise then that persuading audiences to change their core beliefs is more difficult than persuading them to change their dispositional beliefs. For this reason, you are very unlikely to persuade people to change their deeply held core beliefs about a topic in a five- to ten-minute speech. However, if you give a persuasive speech on a topic related to an audience’s dispositional beliefs, you may have a better chance of success. While core beliefs may seem to be exciting and interesting, persuasive topics related to dispositional beliefs are generally better for novice speakers with limited time allotments.

    Change Behavior

    The second type of persuasive speech is one in which the speaker attempts to persuade an audience to change their behavior. Behaviors come in a wide range of forms, so finding one you think people should start, increase, or decrease shouldn’t be difficult at all. Speeches encouraging audiences to vote for a candidate, sign a petition opposing a tuition increase, or drink tap water instead of bottled water are all behavior-oriented persuasive speeches. In all these cases, the goal is to change the behavior of individual listeners.

    Why Persuasion Matters

    Frymier and Nadler (2007) enumerate three reasons why people should study persuasion:

    First, when you study and understand persuasion, you will be more successful at persuading others. If you want to be a persuasive public speaker, then you need to have a working understanding of how persuasion functions.

    Second, when people understand persuasion, they will be better consumers of information. As previously mentioned, we live in a society where numerous message sources are constantly fighting for our attention. Unfortunately, most people just let messages wash over them like a wave, making little effort to understand or analyze them. As a result, they are more likely to fall for half-truths, illogical arguments, and lies. When you start to understand persuasion, you will have the skill set to actually pick apart the messages being sent to you and see why some of them are good and others are simply not.

    Lastly, when we understand how persuasion functions, we’ll have a better grasp of what happens around us in the world. We’ll be able to analyze why certain speakers are effective persuaders and others are not.

    In addition to Frymier and Nadler's reasons, we believe it is an ethical imperative in the twenty-first century to be persuasively literate. We believe that persuasive messages that aim to manipulate, coerce, and intimidate people are unethical, as are messages that distort information. As ethical listeners, we have a responsibility to analyze messages that manipulate, coerce, and/or intimidate people or distort information. We also then have the responsibility to combat these messages with the truth, which will ultimately rely on our own skills and knowledge as effective persuaders.

    Theories of Persuasion

    Understanding how people are persuaded is very important to the discussion of public speaking. Thankfully, a number of researchers have created theories that help explain why people are persuaded. While there are numerous theories that help to explain persuasion, we are only going to examine three of them in this chapter: Social Judgment Theory, Cognitive Dissonance Theory, and the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

    Social Judgment Theory

    Sherif and Hovland (1961) created Social Judgment Theory in an attempt to determine what types of communicative messages and under what conditions will lead to a change in someone’s behavior. In essence, Sherif and Hovland found that people’s perceptions of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors exist on a continuum, including latitude of rejection, latitude of noncommitment, and latitude of acceptance (Figure 17.1 “Latitudes of Judgments”).

    Latitudes of Judgments
    Figure 17.1 Latitudes of Judgments

    Imagine that you’re planning to persuade your peers to major in a foreign language in college. Some of the students in your class are going to disagree with you right off the bat (latitude of rejection, part (a) of Figure 17.1 “Latitudes of Judgments”). Other students are going to think majoring in a foreign language is a great idea (latitude of acceptance, part (c) of Figure 17.1 “Latitudes of Judgments”). Others may really have no opinion either way (latitude of noncommitment, part (b) of Figure 17.1 “Latitudes of Judgments”). Now in each of these different latitudes, there is a range of possibilities. For example, one of your listeners may be perfectly willing to accept the idea of minoring in a foreign language, but when asked to major or even double major in a foreign language, he or she may end up in the latitude of noncommitment or even rejection.

    Not surprisingly, Sherif and Hovland (1961) found that persuasive messages were the most likely to succeed when they fell into an individual’s latitude of acceptance. For example, if you are giving your speech on majoring in a foreign language, people who are in favor of majoring in a foreign language are more likely to positively evaluate your message, assimilate your advice into their own ideas, and engage in the desired behavior. On the other hand, people who reject your message are more likely to negatively evaluate your message, not assimilate your advice, and not engage in the desired behavior.

    In an ideal world, we’d always be persuading people who agree with our opinions, but that’s not reality. Instead, we often find ourselves in situations where we are trying to persuade others to attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors with which they do not agree. To help us persuade others, what we need to think about is the range of possible attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors that exist. For example, in our foreign language case, we may see the following possible opinions from our audience members:

    1. Complete agreement. Where is the paperwork for me to change my major?
    2. Strong agreement. I won’t major in a foreign language, but I will double major in a foreign language.
    3. Agreement in part. I won’t major in a foreign language, but I will minor in a foreign language.
    4. Neutral. While I think studying a foreign language can be worthwhile, I also think a college education can be complete without it. I really don’t feel strongly one way or the other.
    5. Disagreement in part. I will only take the foreign language classes required by my major.
    6. Strong disagreement. I don’t think I should have to take any foreign language classes.
    7. Complete disagreement. Majoring in a foreign language is a complete waste of a college education.

    These seven possible opinions on the subject do not represent the full spectrum of choices but give us various degrees of agreement with the general topic. So what does this have to do with persuasion? Well, Sherif and Hovland (1961) theorized that persuasion was a matter of knowing how great the discrepancy or difference was between the speaker’s viewpoint and that of the audience. If the speaker’s point of view was similar to that of audience members, then persuasion was more likely. If the discrepancy between the idea proposed by the speaker and the audience’s viewpoint is too great, then the likelihood of persuasion decreases dramatically.

    Discrepancy and Attitude Change

    Figure 17.2 Discrepancy and Attitude Change

    Furthermore, Sherif and Hovland (1961) predicted that there was a threshold for most people where attitude change wasn’t possible and they slipped from the latitude of acceptance into the latitude of noncommitment or rejection. Figure 17.2 represents this process. All the area covered by the left side of the curve represents options with which a person would agree, even if there is an initial discrepancy between the speaker and audience member at the start of the speech. However, there comes a point where the discrepancy between the speaker and audience member becomes too large, which moves into the options that will be automatically rejected by the audience member. In essence, it becomes essential for you to know which options are realistic for you to persuade your audience in, and which options will never happen. Maybe there is no way for you to persuade your audience to major or double major in a foreign language, but perhaps you can get them to minor in a foreign language. While you may not be achieving your complete end goal, it’s better than getting nowhere at all.

    Cognitive Dissonance Theory

    Festinger (1957) proposed another theory for understanding how persuasion functions, called Cognitive Dissonance Theory. Cognitive dissonance is an aversive motivational state that occurs when an individual entertains two or more contradictory attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors simultaneously. For example, people who have a strong belief in bodily autonomy and also believe in vaccine mandates can experience competing beliefs that cause cognitive dissonance. The goal of persuasion is to induce enough dissonance in the listener that they will change their attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors.

    Frymier and Nadler (2007) noted that for cognitive dissonance to work effectively the following three necessary conditions must be met: 1) Aversive consequences, 2) Freedom of choice, and 3) Insufficient external justification. First, for cognitive dissonance to work, there needs to be a strong enough aversive consequence, or punishment, for not changing one’s attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors. For example, maybe you’re giving a speech on why people need to eat more apples. If your aversive consequence for not eating apples is that your audience will not get enough fiber, most people will simply not be persuaded, because the punishment isn’t severe enough. Instead, for cognitive dissonance to work, the punishment associated with not eating apples needs to be significant enough to change their behavior. If you convince your audience that without enough fiber in their diet they are at higher risk for heart disease or colon cancer, they might fear the aversive consequences enough to change their behavior.

    The second condition necessary for cognitive dissonance to work is that people must have freedom of choice. If listeners feel that they are being coerced into doing something, then dissonance will not be aroused. They may alter their behavior in the short term, but as soon as the coercion is gone, the original behavior will reemerge. It’s like the person who drives more slowly when a police officer is nearby but ignores speed limits once officers are no longer present. As a speaker, if you want to increase cognitive dissonance, you need to make sure that your audience doesn’t feel coerced or manipulated, but rather that they can clearly see that they have a choice of whether to be persuaded.

    The final condition necessary for cognitive dissonance to work is related to external and internal justifications. External justification refers to the process of identifying reasons outside of one’s control to support one’s behavior, beliefs, and attitudes. Internal justification refers to the process of identifying reasons within ones control (e.g., one's character, personal traits, or beliefs) to justify changes to behavior, belief, or attitude to reduce cognitive dissonance. When it comes to creating change through persuasion, external justifications are less likely to result in change than internal justifications (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959). Imagine that you’re giving a speech with the specific purpose of persuading college students to use condoms whenever they engage in sexual intercourse. Your audience analysis, in the form of an anonymous survey, indicates that a large percentage of your listeners do not consistently use condoms. Which would be the more persuasive argument: (a) “Failure to use condoms inevitably results in unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including AIDS”—or (b) “If you think of yourself as a responsible adult, you’ll use condoms to protect yourself and your partner”? With the first argument, you have provided external justification for using condoms (i.e., terrible things will happen if you don’t use condoms). Listeners who reject this external justification (e.g., who don’t believe these dire consequences are inevitable) are unlikely to change their behavior. With the second argument, however, if your listeners think of themselves as responsible adults and they don’t consistently use condoms, the conflict between their self-image and their behavior will elicit cognitive dissonance. In order to reduce this cognitive dissonance, they are likely to seek internal justification for the view of themselves as responsible adults by changing their behavior (i.e., using condoms more consistently). In this case, according to the Cognitive Dissonance Theory, the second persuasive argument would be the one more likely to lead to a change in behavior.

    Elaboration Likelihood Model

    The last of the three theories of persuasion discussed here is the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) created by Petty and Cacioppo (1986). The basic ELM model has a continuum from high elaboration (high thought process) to low elaboration (low thought process). For the purposes of Petty and Cacioppo’s model, the term elaboration refers to the amount of thought or cognitive energy someone uses to directly analyze the content of a message. High elaboration uses the central route of cognition and is designed for analyzing the content of a message. As such, when people use the central route, they examine the merits of the argument by applying critical thinking methods to weigh the pros and cons of the argument carefully. In an ideal world, everyone would process information through this central route. Unfortunately, many people often use the peripheral route for attending to persuasive messages, which is a result of low elaboration or thought process. Low elaboration occurs when people do not analyze the message for its content and use cues that are unrelated to the argument to make their decision. The attitudes and beliefs formed by the central route are stronger than those formed by the peripheral route.

    The question then becomes, how do people select one route or the other when attending to persuasive messages? Petty and Cacioppo (1986) noted that there are two basic factors for determining whether someone centrally processes a persuasive message:

    1. Ability: First, audience members must be able to process the persuasive message. If the language or message is too complicated, then people will not highly elaborate on it because they will not understand the persuasive message;
    2. Motivation. Motivation, on the other hand, refers to whether the audience member chooses to elaborate on the message.

    Frymier and Nadler (2007) discussed five basic factors that can lead to high elaboration: 1) Personal relevance and personal involvement, 2) Accountability, 3) Personal responsibility, 4) Incongruent information, and 5) The need for cognition. we will discuss each of them below.

    1) Personal Relevance and Personal Involvement

    The first reason people are motivated to take the central route or use high elaboration when faced with persuasive messages involves personal relevance and involvement. Personal relevance refers to whether the audience member feels that they are actually directly affected by the topic of the message. For example, if someone is listening to a speech on why cigarette smoking is harmful, and that listener has never smoked cigarettes, they are likely to think the speech topic simply isn’t relevant to them. Obviously, as a speaker, you should always think about how your topic is relevant to your listeners and make sure to highlight its importance throughout your speech. Personal involvement, on the other hand, asks whether the individual is actively engaged with the issue at hand. Does the person sends letters of support, gives speeches on the topic, has a bumper sticker, and so forth? If an audience member is an advocate who is constantly denouncing tobacco companies for the harm they do to society, then they would be highly involved (i.e., would engage in high elaboration) in a speech that attempts to persuade listeners that smoking is harmful.

    2) Accountability

    The second condition under which people are likely to process information using the central route is when they feel that they will be held accountable for the information after the fact. With accountability, there is the perception of the receiver that they will be evaluated on the information later. We’ve all witnessed this phenomenon when one student asks the question “will this be on the test?” If the teacher says “no,” you can almost immediately see the glazed eyes in the classroom as students tune out the information. As a speaker, it’s often hard to hold your audience accountable for the information given in a speech.

    3) Personal Responsibility

    When people feel that they are going to be held responsible, without a clear external accounting, for the evaluation of a message or the outcome of a message, they are more likely to critically think through the message using the central route. For example, maybe you’re asked to evaluate fellow students in your public speaking class. If only one or two students are asked to evaluate any one speaker at a time, the quality of the evaluations for that speaker will be better than if everyone in the class is asked to evaluate every speaker. When people feel that their evaluation is important, they take more responsibility and therefore are more critical of the message delivered.

    4) Incongruent Information

    Some people are motivated to centrally process information when it does not adhere to their own ideas. Maybe you’re a highly progressive liberal, and one of your peers delivers a speech on the importance of the Tea Party movement in United States politics. The information presented during the speech will most likely be in direct contrast to your personal ideology, which causes incongruence because the Tea Party ideology is opposed to a progressive liberal ideology. As such, you are more likely to pay attention to the speech, specifically looking for flaws in the speaker’s argument.

    5) Need for Cognition

    The final reason some people centrally process information is that they have a personality characteristic called need for cognition. Need for cognition refers to a personality trait characterized by an internal drive or need to engage in critical thinking and information processing. People who have a high need for cognition simply enjoy thinking about complex ideas and issues. Even if the idea or issue being presented has no personal relevance, people with a high need for cognition are more likely to process information using the central route.

    Key Takeaways

    • Persuasion is the use of verbal and nonverbal messages to get a person to behave in a manner or embrace a point of view related to values, attitudes, and beliefs that they would not have done otherwise. Studying persuasion is important today because it helps us become more persuasive individuals, become more observant of others’ persuasive attempts, and have a more complete understanding of the world around us.
    • Social Judgment theory says that persuaders need to be aware of an audience’s latitudes of acceptance, noncommitment, and rejection in order to effectively persuade an audience. Cognitive Dissonance theory reasons that people do not like holding to ideas that are contrary and will do what is necessary to get rid of the dissonance caused by the two contrary ideas. Lastly, the Elaboration Likelihood Model posits that persuaders should attempt to get receivers to think about the arguments being made (going through the central route) rather than having receivers pay attention to nonargument related aspects of the speech.


    1. Imagine you’re giving a speech to a group of college fraternity and sorority members about why hazing shouldn’t be tolerated. Explain the persuasive process using each of the three theories of persuasion discussed in this chapter.
    2. Make a list of strategies that you could employ to ensure that your audience analyzes your message using the central route and not the peripheral route. According to Petty and Cacioppo’s (1986) Elaboration Likelihood Model, which of these strategies are most likely to be effective? Why?


    Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson, & Company.

    Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203–210.

    Frankish, K. (1998). Virtual belief. In P. Carruthers & J. Boucher (Eds.), Language and thought (pp. 249–269). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Frymier, A. B., & Nadler, M. K. (2007). Persuasion: Integrating theory, research, and practice. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

    Perloff, R. M. (2003). The dynamics of persuasion: Communication and attitudes in the 21st Century (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 5–6.

    Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 123–205.

    Sherif, M., & Hovland, C. I. (1961). Social judgment: Assimilation and contrast effects in communication and attitude change. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

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