What Is APA Style?
The Levels of APA Style
|APA style feature
|Scientific value or assumption
|There are very few direct quotations of other researchers.
|The phenomena and theories of psychology are objective and do not depend on the specific words a particular researcher used to describe them.
|Criticisms are directed at other researchers’ work but not at them personally.
|The focus of scientific research is on drawing general conclusions about the world, not on the personalities of particular researchers.
|There are many references and reference citations.
|Scientific research is a large-scale collaboration among many researchers.
|Empirical research reports are organized with specific sections in a fixed order.
|There is an ideal approach to conducting empirical research in psychology (even if this ideal is not always achieved in actual research).
|Researchers tend to “hedge” their conclusions, e.g., “The results suggest that…”
|Scientific knowledge is tentative and always subject to revision based on new empirical results.
|men and women, people
|homosexuals, gays, bisexuals
|lesbians, gay men, bisexual men, bisexual women
|specific group label (e.g., African American)
|people scoring high in neuroticism
|children with learning disabilities
|1. Use of numbers
|Failing to use numerals for 10 and above
|Failing to hyphenate compound adjectives that precede a noun (e.g., “role playing technique” should be “role-playing technique”)
|3. Use of et al.
|Failing to use it after a reference is cited for the first time
|Not capitalizing headings correctly
|5. Use of since
|Using since to mean because
|6. Tables and figures
|Not formatting them in APA style; repeating information that is already given in the text
|7. Use of commas
|Failing to use a comma before and or or in a series of three or more elements
|8. Use of abbreviations
|Failing to spell out a term completely before introducing an abbreviation for it
|Not consistently double-spacing between lines
|10. Use of “&” in references
|Using & in the text or and in parentheses