Skip to main content
Library homepage
 
Social Sci LibreTexts

6: Feedback

  • Page ID
    86742
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

     

    Feedback

    Feedback is something that tells you if you’re on the right track or not. In a nutshell, feedback is information provided on the performance or understanding of a task which can then be used to improve this performance or understanding. Feedback helps to close the gap between actual performance and intended performance. There are a multitude of different types of feedback and we encounter many of these in our everyday lives.

    Feedback can come from a diverse variety of sources as well. Feedback doesn’t need to be formal. In fact, some feedback is very informal and we hardly recognize it for what it is. Feedback has a powerful influence on learning and in particular on deep engagement with content. If we would like our students to have a full understanding of a task and gain skills they can use in the future and transfer to other tasks, then effective feedback on learning is crucial.

    For a fuller understanding of the nature of feedback and closing the gap between actual performance and intended performance, we need to explore the different purposes, types, and levels of feedback and ask three important questions:

    1) What did I do well?

    2) What do I need to improve? and

    3) How do I improve?

     

    The first question is about the learning goals: ‘What did I do well?’

    The second question that has to be answered is: ‘What do I need to improve?’ Learners need to know how the current performance relates to the learning goals.

    Finally, learners will ask: ‘How do I improve?’ What activities need to be undertaken to make better progress?


     

    The use of feedback is regarded as one of the most powerful strategies to improve student achievement and you may or may not be aware of just how much attention it receives in education policy and practice. As we explore effective feedback, I want you to reflect on ways feedback has influenced you in your own learning journey.

    Four common, key conditions for effective feedback are evident from research:

    1. Clarifying expectations and standards for the learner.
    2. Scheduling ongoing, targeted feedback within the learning period.
    3. Fostering practices to develop self-assessment, and
    4. Providing feed-forward opportunities to close the feedback loop.

    Let’s have a look at each of these conditions in more detail.

    1. Clarifying expectations and standards for the learner.

    use of exemplars or models. Exemplars are particularly effective as they clearly depict the required standards and enable students to make a direct comparison between their own work and the stated standards of the exemplar. Students also report they value feedback that is matched to the assessment criteria.


    2. Scheduling ongoing, targeted feedback within the learning period.


    3. Fostering practices to develop self-assessment

    Self-regulation is a key process within an effective model of feedback for deep learning. Self-regulated learners are cognizant of both the standards and criteria and their own current levels of performance or achievement. To develop self-regulatory behaviors, learners must be regularly engaged in tasks and activities that are matched to the criteria for success and include processes, such as self-assessment, that encourage critical thinking and reflection.


    4. Providing feed-forward opportunities to close the feedback loop.


    Click here to watch the video. (8:02 minutes)

     

    granite.pressbooks.pub/teachingdiverselearners/?p=264


    Click here to watch the video (8:41 minutes). The Feedback Matrix can be printed out at the link.


     

    Peer Feedback

    Peer feedback helps students recognize assessment criteria; and develops a wide range of transferable skills. Interacting with their peers in this manner provides learners opportunities to problem solve and reflect. It increases a sense of responsibility, promotes independent learning and encourages them to be open to a variety of perspectives. Commenting on the work of peers enables learners to engage with assessment criteria; thus, inducting them into assessment practices and tacit knowledge. Learners are then able to develop an understanding of standards which they can potentially transfer of their own work.


    Peer Critique: Creating a Culture of Revision

    Your students can improve their work by recognizing the strengths and weaknesses in the work of others.

    Be Kind, Be Specific, Be Helpful

    Click here to watch video from Edutopia: (4:32 minutes)

     

    granite.pressbooks.pub/teachingdiverselearners/?p=264


    Using Self and Peer Feedback as Assessments for Learning

    Click here to watch video on using self and peer feedback as assessments for learning. (2:44 minutes)

     

    granite.pressbooks.pub/teachingdiverselearners/?p=264


    References

    • [Edutopia]. (Nov. 1, 2016). Peer Critique: Creating a Culture of Revision. [Video File]. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=M8FKJPpvreY
    • [PERTS]. (Jan. 6, 2016). Using Self and Peer Feedback as Assessments for Learning. [Video File] Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Ckrbsigh9E
    • UQx: LEARNx Deep Learning through Transformative Pedagogy (2017). University of Queensland, Australia (CC BY NC)


    6: Feedback is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

    • Was this article helpful?