In this chapter, we explored why it’s important to study human communication, the basic principles of human communication, the nature of communication competence, the types of human communication, and mindful communication. We hope this chapter makes you interested in staying with us throughout the rest of the book as we explore interpersonal communication.
End of Chapter
- Acting with Awareness
- Appropriate Communication
- Cognitive Complexity
- Communication Competence
- Connotative Definitions
- Denotative Definitions
- Effective Communication
- Interpersonal Communication
- Intrapersonal Communication
- Mediated Communication
- Mindful Awareness
- Mindful Communication
- Mindful Practice
- Nonjudging of Inner Experience
- Nonreactivity to Inner Experience
- Public Communication
Real World Case Study
Noam is a freshman in college and doesn’t understand why he needs to take a communication studies course. He doesn’t see the importance or application of this course. He wants to be an engineer. His math and engineering classes are more exciting than a communications course. He has been talking his whole life and is very popular.
Can you convince him why communication is important for Noam?
End of Chapter Quiz
- Which of the following are reasons for studying communication?
a. to increase our effectiveness
b. gives us a new perspective
c. because we spend so much time doing it
d. a and b
e. all of the above
- My mother told me that I would succeed at anything I put my mind to and that I could achieve anything. Which type of need is this example?
- Communication is all the following except:
b. contains a relationship dimension
c. contains a content dimension
d. culturally determined
- An individual at a concert flashes a friend the “peace sign” using her index and middle finger to form the letter “v.” This is an example of what?
a. a sign
b. a word
c. mediated communication
d. an emoji
e. a symbol
- Which type of communication involves the exchange of messages between two people?
c. small group
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2 Knapp, M. L., & Daly, J. A. (2011). Background and current trends in the study of interpersonal communication. In M. L. Knapp & J. Daly (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of interpersonal communication (4th ed., pp. 3-22). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
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15 Nilsson, H., & Kazemi, A. (2016). Reconciling and thematizing definitions of mindfulness: The big five of mindfulness. Review of General Psychology, 20(2), 183-193. https://doi.org/10.1037/gpr0000074, pg. 190.
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18 Langer, E. J. (1989). Mindfulness. Da Capo; pg. 220.
19 Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191104268029; pg. 191.
20 Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. Guilford Press; pgs. 322–323.
21 Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Wherever you go there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. Hyperion; pg. 4.
22 Gordon, R. D. (2018). Tuning-in: The art of mindful communicating. iUniverse; pg. 24.
23 American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Mindfulness. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from https://dictionary.apa.org/mindfulness
24 Sauer, S., & Baer, R. A. (2010). Mindfulness and decentering as mechanisms of change in mindfulnessand acceptance-based interventions. In. R. A. Baer (Ed.), Assessing mindfulness & acceptance process in clients: Illuminating the theory & practice of change (pp. 25-50). Context Press; pg. 28.
25 Langer, E. J. (1989). Mindfulness. Da Capo.
26 Shapiro, S. L., & Carlson, L. E. (2017). The art and science of mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association, pg. 2.
27 American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Awareness. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from https://dictionary.apa.org/awareness
28 Shapiro, S. L., & Carlson, L. E. (2017). The art and science of mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.
29 Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386. doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20237
30 Shapiro, S., Thakur, S., & Sousa, S. (2014). Mindfulness for health care professionals and therapists in training. In R. A. Baer (Ed.), Mindfulness-based treatment approaches clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications (2nd ed., pp. 319-345). Academic Press; pg. 320.
31 Killingsworth, M. A., & Gilbert, D. T. (2010). A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science, 330(6006), 932. doi.org/10.1126/science.1192439
32 Shapiro, S., Thakur, S., & Sousa, S. (2014). Mindfulness for health care professionals and therapists in training. In R. A. Baer (Ed.), Mindfulness-based treatment approaches clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications (2nd ed., pp. 319-345). Academic Press.
33 Ibid.; pg. 320.
34 Ibid. pg. 320.
35 Ibid. pg. 321.
36 Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. Delacorte; pg. 19.
37 Siegel, D. J. (2007). Mindfulness training and neural integration: Differentiation of distinct streams of awareness and the cultivation of well-being. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(4), 259–263. https:// dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsm034
38 Fogel, S. J. (n.d.). Mindful awareness and COAL. Steven J. Fogel Blog. stevenjayfogel.com/mindfulawareness-and-coal/
39 Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. Delacorte; pgs. 20-21.
40 Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191105283504
41 Sauer, S., & Baer, R. A. (2010). Mindfulness and decentering as mechanisms of change in mindfulness-and acceptance-based interventions. In. R. A. Baer (Ed.), Assessing mindfulness & acceptance process in clients: Illuminating the theory & practice of change (pp. 25-50). Context Press; pg. 31.
42 Sørensen, L., Osnes, B., Visted, E., Svendsen, J. L., Adolfsdottir, S., Binder, P. E., & Schanche, E. (2018), November). Dispositional mindfulness and attentional control: The specific association between the mindfulness facets of non-judgment and describing with flexibility of early operating orienting in conflict detection. Frontiers in Psychology, 29, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02359; pg. 2.
43 Sauer, S., & Baer, R. A. (2010). Mindfulness and decentering as mechanisms of change in mindfulness-and acceptance-based interventions. In. R. A. Baer (Ed.), Assessing mindfulness & acceptance process in clients: Illuminating the theory & practice of change (pp. 25-50). Context Press; pg. 31.
44 Galla, B. M., Tsukayama, E., Park, D., Yu, A., & Duckworth, A. L. (2020). The mindful adolescent: Developmental changes in nonreactivity to inner experiences and its association with emotional well-being. Developmental Psychology, 56(2), 350–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000877; pg. 351.
45 Clance, P. R., & Imes, S. A. (1978). The imposter phenomenon in high achieving women: Dynamics and therapeutic intervention. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 15(3), 241–247. doi.org/10.1037/ h0086006
46 Flett, J. A. M., Lie, C., Riordan, B. C., Thompson, L. M., Conner, T. S., & Hayne, H. (2017). Sharpen your pencils: Preliminary evidence that adult coloring reduces depressive symptoms and anxiety. Creativity Research Journal, 29(4), 409-416. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2017.1376505
47 van der Vennet, R., & Serice, S. (2012). Can coloring mandalas reduce anxiety? A replication study. Art Therapy, 29(2), 87-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421656.2012.680047
48 Mantzios, M., & Giannou, K. (2018). When did coloring books become mindful? Exploring the effectiveness of a novel method of mindfulness-guided instructions for coloring books to increase mindfulness and decrease anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology, 30. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00056
49 Ashdown, B. K., Bodenlos, J. S., Arroyo, K., Patterson, M., Parkins, E., & Burstein, S. (2018). How does coloring influence mood, stress, and mindfulness? Journal of Integrated Social Sciences, 8(1), 1-21. tinyurl. com/sp6k6qv
50 DeLue, C. (1999). Physiological effects of creating mandalas. In C. Malchiodi (Ed.), Medical art therapy with children (pp. 33-49). Jessica Kingsley.
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52 Shapiro, L. E. (2016). Mindful coloring: A simple & fun way to reduce stress in your life. tinyurl. com/y3uqocrf; pg. 2.
53 Benoit, P. J., & Benoit, W. L. (1986). Consciousness: The mindlessness/mindfulness and verbal report controversies. The Western Journal of Speech Communication, 50(1), 41-63. doi. org/10.1080/10570318609374212
54 Motley, M. T. (1992). Mindfulness in solving communicators’ dilemmas. Communication Monographs, 59(3), 306-314. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637759209376272
55 Burgoon, J. K., Berger, C. R., & Waldron, V. R. (2000). Mindfulness and interpersonal communication. Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), 105-127.
56 Ibid.; pg. 112.
57 Sivaraksa, S. (2018). Mindful Communication for Sustainable Development. In K. Seneviratne (Ed.), Mindful communication for sustainable development: Perspectives from Asia (pp. 29-33). Sage; pg. 31.
58 Prince-Paul, M., & Kelly, C. (2017). Mindful communication: Being present. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 3(5), 475-482; pg. 476.
59 Shapiro, S. L., & Carlson, L. E. (2017). The art and science of mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.
60 Burgoon, J. K., Berger, C. R., & Waldron, V. R. (2000). Mindfulness and interpersonal communication. Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), 105-127; pg. 121.
End of Chapter Quiz Answer Key