In this chapter, we discussed the importance of nonverbal communication. To be an effective nonverbal communicator, it is necessary to understand that nonverbal communication conveys a tremendous amount of information. However, the meaning of nonverbal communication most often must be understood within the context of the interaction. There are very few nonverbal behaviors that can be understood outside of context.
This chapter also discusses the functions of nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication serves many purposes and works to clarify the meaning of verbal communication. Verbal communication and nonverbal communication, in combination, increase the chances of stimulating accurate meaning in the minds of others. One without the other dilutes the effectiveness of each.
Finally, this chapter discusses the subcategories of nonverbal communication. The subcategories of nonverbal communication allow us to account for the multitude of cues sent between the sender and receiver. The human brain must account for cues resulting from eye contact, facial expressions, distance between sender and receiver, touch, sound, movement, and scent. Amazingly, the human brain processes all of these cues very quickly and with a high degree of accuracy
End of Chapter
- Accent • Affect Displays • Attribution Error • Complement • Contradict • Dysfluencies • Emblems • Eye Gaze • Haptics • Illustrators • Inflection • Intensity • Kinesics • Nonverbal Vocalization • Oculesics • Olfactics • Paralanguage • Pitch • Proxemics • Regulate • Regulators • Repeat • Rhythm • Substitute • Tempo • Timbre • Verbal Surrogates • Vocalics
Read World Case Study
Addie was assigned a roommate for her freshman year in college. Addie noticed that her roommate didn’t make much eye contact, avoided touch, and didn’t smile very often. After a few weeks, Addie noticed that her roommate began to look at her more when talking and smiled when she came into the room. Meanwhile, Addie made friends in some of her classes and invited them to her room to study. Addie’s roommate didn’t look at anyone and didn’t smile. Addie’s friends complained that her roommate didn’t like them and that she was a little strange.
What information might Addie provide to her friends to give them insight into Addie’s behavior?
The roommate’s nonverbal behavior may have consequences for her in social settings. Is it her responsibility to adapt her nonverbal communication or the responsibility of those around her to try to understand that she is simply different?
End of Chapter Quiz
- If Mary stomps her foot while saying, “No, I won’t go with you.” Which function of nonverbal communication is she using?
- Ronnie says “ummm” frequently when speaking. This aspect of vocalics is referred to as _____.
- Choose the best example of an emblem.
a. Using two fingers in the shape of a V to sign “Peace”
b. Shaking of the head to say no
c. Pointing in the air while saying up
d. Rubbing your stomach while saying yum
e. Making a cradle with the arms when saying baby
- What is the difference in the repeating function of nonverbal communication and the complementing function of nonverbal communication?
a. Complementing nonverbal behavior can stand alone, whereas repeating cannot.
b. Repeating nonverbal communication can stand alone, whereas complementing cannot.
c. Repeating behaviors are more useful than complementing nonverbal communication.
d. There is no difference between complementing and repeating nonverbal behavior.
e. Repeating behaviors are more culturally appropriate in the U.S.
- Which function of nonverbal communication is best represented when the nonverbal behavior is the opposite of verbal communication?
- _____ is the study of how use of space communicates.
- _____ is the study of how touch communicates.
- If Lacey is standing within 18 inches of her friend, she is standing in which of Hall’s distances?
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10 Eckman, P and Friesen, W.V. (1969). Head and body cues in the judgement of emotion: A reformulation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 24, 711-724.
11 Sacco, D. F., & Brown, M. (2018). Preferences for facially communicated big five personality traits and their relation to self-reported big five personality. Personality & Individual Differences, 134, 195–200. doi. org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.06.024
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21 Ivy, D. K., & Wahl, S. T. (2019). Nonverbal communication for a lifetime (3rd ed.). Kendall-Hunt; pg. 155.
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24 Sobczak, C. (2014). embody: Learning to love your unique body (and quiet that critical voice). Gürze; pg 18. https://tinyurl.com/sarp4mq
25 Ibid., pgs. 18-19.
26 Ibid. pg. 23.
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31 Sobczak, C. (2014). embody: Learning to love your unique body (and quiet that critical voice). Gürze; pg. 81. https://tinyurl.com/sarp4mq
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33 Berscheid, E., Dion, K., Walster, E., & Walster, G. W. (1971). Physical attractiveness and dating choice: A test of the matching hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 7(2), 173–189. doi. org/10.1016/0022-1031(71)90065-5
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36 Mehrabian, A. (1972). Nonverbal communication. Aldine Publishing Company.
37 Richmond, V. P., Smith, R. S., Heisel, A. D., & McCroskey, J. C. (2001). Nonverbal immediacy in the patient/physician relationship. Communication Research Reports, 18(3), 211-216. doi. org/10.1080/08824090109384800
38 LaBelle, S., Odenweller, K.G., Myers, S.A. (2015). Applying instructor communication behaviors and learning outcomes to the pediatrician-parent context. Southern Communication Journal, 80(1), 55-73. https:// doi.org/10.1080/1041794X.2014.981284.
39 Conlee, C. J., Olvera, J., & Vagim, N. N. (1993). The relationships among physician nonverbal immediacy and patient satisfaction with hospital care: Results of an analysis with a novel instrumental variable. Health Research and Educational Trust, 43(5), 1505-1519. doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2008.00849.x
40 Wanzer, M. B., Booth-Butterfield, M., & Gruber, K. (2004). Perceptions of health care providers’ communication: Relationships between patient-centered communication and satisfaction. Health Communication, 16(3), 363-384. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327027HC1603_6
41 Paulsel, M. L., McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (2006). Perceptions of health care professionals’ credibility as a predictor of patients’ satisfaction with their medical care and physician. Communication Research Reports, 23(2), 69-76. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090600668832
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43 LaBelle, S., Odenweller, K. G., & Myers, S. A. (2015). Applying instructor communication behaviors and learning outcomes to the pediatrician-parent context. Southern Communication Journal, 80(1), 55-73. https:// doi.org/10.1080/1041794X.2014.981284
45 Richmond, V. P., Smith, R. S., Heisel, A. D., & McCroskey, J. C. (2001). Nonverbal immediacy in the patient/physician relationship. Communication Research Reports, 18(3), 211-216. doi. org/10.1080/08824090109384800
End of Chapter Quiz Answer Key