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6.5: Chapter Wrap-Up

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    In this chapter, we started by discussing what the word “culture” means while also considering the concepts of co-culture and microcultures. We then looked at the critical functions that culture performs in our daily lives. Next, we discussed the intersection of culture and communication. Lastly, we ended this chapter discussing how you can improve your intercultural communication skills.

    End of Chapter

    Key Terms

    • Behavioral CQ
    • Belief
    • Co-Culture
    • Cognitive CQ
    • Collective Self-Esteem
    • Collectivism
    • Cultural Intelligence
    • Culture
    • Culture as Normative
    • Dominant Culture
    • Ethnocentrism
    • Face
    • Feminine
    • High-Context Cultures
    • Importance to Identity
    • Indigenous Peoples
    • Individualism
    • Indulgence
    • Long-Term Orientation
    • Low-Context Cultures
    • Masculine
    • Membership Esteem
    • Metacognitive CQ
    • Microculture
    • Motivational CQ
    • Norms
    • Ostracized
    • Power Distance
    • Private Collective Esteem
    • Public Collective Self-Esteem
    • Restraint
    • Rules
    • Short-Term Orientation
    • Stereotype
    • Uncertainty Avoidance
    • Values

    Real World Case Study

    Roy and Jalissa originally met in graduate school. On the first day that Jalissa walked into grad school, she was glad to see someone else near her age, which was older than the average student in the class. Even though Roy was White and Jalissa was African American, the two immediately felt drawn to each other. Before they knew it, Jalissa and Roy were inseparable. Jalissa’s husband started to get jealous of Roy until he met Roy and realized that Roy was gay.

    Over the years, the two graduated and went to different jobs that were close to each other. Roy and Jalissa still would get together regularly and go shopping, go to the movies, have dinner, etc. The two of them considered themselves as highly culturally intelligent people. Jalissa was a Dean of Diversity at a liberal arts college, and Roy taught cultural studies at a large research university. The two often had pet names for each other that people outside of their relationship could view as racist or homophobic, but they knew the spirit behind their pet names was meant in jest and not ignorance, ethnocentrism, or fear.

    One day Roy and Jalissa were hanging how in a store when Roy found an African Mask. Roy grabbed the mask, walked up behind Jalissa, and shouted, “Abugga bugga!” Jalissa turned around and laughingly slapped Roy on the arm responding, “You White racist cracker!” Jalissa looked at an older White woman standing in the row completely startled, and she just busted out laughing and Roy joined right in.

    1. In this case, was Roy culturally intelligent? Why?
    2. In this case, was Jalissa culturally intelligent? Why?
    3. Was this interpersonal interaction appropriate? Why?

    End Of Chapter Quiz

    1. Milagros belongs to a very distinct South American tribe. Bravery is very important in her tribe. From an early age, all boys and girls are taught that bravery is akin to being a member of the tribe. Furthermore, people who are not brave are often banished from the tribe. For this tribe, what does bravery represent?
      a. a rule
      b. a norm
      c. a value
      d. a belief
      e. a worth
    2. African Americans; Bisexuals, Gays, and Lesbians; Irish Americans, Southerners are all examples of what?
      a. dominant cultures
      b. co-cultures
      c. subcultures
      d. microcultures
      e. collaborative cultures
    3. As a transgendered individual, Melanie realizes that many people in her dominant culture do not understand, agree with, nor support transgendered individuals and causes. Which facet of collective self-esteem does this represent?
      a. private collective esteem
      b. membership esteem
      c. public collective esteem
      d. importance to identity
      e. other esteem
    4. The degree to which an individual views the world from their own culture’s perspective while evaluating other cultures according to their culture’s preconceptions often accompanied by feelings of dislike, mistrust, or hate for cultures deemed inferior?
      a. ethnocentrism
      b. stereotypes
      c. prejudice
      d. discrimination
      e. cultural annoyance
    5. Juan’s culture is marked by expensive houses, fast cars, rich food, and all the luxuries one could desire. Which of Hofstede’s cultural differences does Juan’s culture represent?
      a. individualism
      b. high power distance
      c. masculinity
      d. short-term orientation
      e. indulgence


    1 Kroeber, A. L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. Harvard University Press.

    2 Ibid.; pgs. 6-7.

    3 Baldwin, J. R., Faulkner, S. L., Hecht, M. L., & Lindsley, S. L. (2006). Redefining culture: Perspectives across the disciplines. Lawrence Erlbaum.

    4 Wrench, J. S. (2001). Intercultural communication: Power in context. Tapestry Press; pg. 12.

    5 Leeming, D. A., & Lemming, M. A. (2009). A dictionary of creation myths. Oxford University Press.

    6 Spradley, J. P., & McCurdy, D. W. (2008). Conformity and conflict: Readings in cultural anthropology. Pearson; pg. 3.

    7 Kevin. (n. d.). Disney traditions [Web log post].

    8 Tajfel, H. (1981). Social identity and intergroup relations. Cambridge University Press; pg. 255.

    9 Luhtanen, R., & Crocker, J. (1992). A collective self-esteem scale: Self-evaluation of one’s social identity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(3), 302-318.

    10 Bailis, D. S., & Chipperfield, J. G. (2006). Emotional and self-evaluative effects of social comparison information in later life: How are they moderated by collective self-esteem? Psychology and Aging, 21(2), 291–302.

    11 Downie, M., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R., & Liodden, T. (2006). On the risk of being a cultural chameleon: Variations in collective self-esteem across social interactions. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(3), 527–540.

    12 Ibid.; pg. 537.

    13 Ashmore, R. D., & Del Boca, F. K. (1981). Conceptual approaches to stereotypes and stereotyping. In D. L. Hamilton (Ed.), Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior (pp. 1-35). Erlbaum; pg. 21.

    14 Lee, Y. T., Jussim, L. J., & McCauley, C. R. (Eds.). ( 1995). Stereotype accuracy: Toward appreciating group differences. American Psychological Association.

    15 Saenz, R., & Evans, L. (2009, June). The changing demography of U.S. flight attendants. Population Reference Bureau. [website]

    16 Novinger, T. (2001). Intercultural communication: A practical guide. University of Texas Press.

    17 Hall, E. T. (1977). Beyond culture. Anchor Press.

    18 Rogers, E. M., Hart, W. B., & Mike, Y. (2002). Edward T. Hall and the history of intercultural communication: The United States and Japan. Keio Communication Review (24): 3–26. publication/pdf2002/review24/2.pdf

    19 Hall, E. T. (1981). The Silent Language. Anchor Books. (Reprint of The Silent Language by E. T. Hall, 1959, Doubleday; pg. 186.

    20 Nam, K. A. (2015). High-context and low-context communication. In J. M. Bennett (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of intercultural competence (pp. 377-381). Sage; pg. 378.

    21 Rösch M., Segler K. G. (1987). Communication with Japanese. Management International Review, 27(4), 56–67.

    22 Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Sage.

    23 Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill.

    24 DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., & Smith, J. C. (2013). U.S. census bureau current population reports, P60-245: Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2012. U.S. Government Printing Office.

    25 Ibid. pg. 9.

    26 Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill.

    27 Ibid.

    28 Ibid.

    29 Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill; pg. 120.

    30 Ibid.

    31 Ibid.

    32 Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill; pg. 230.

    33 Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill.

    34 Ibid Kindle Locations 4809-4811.

    35 Mansson, D. H., & Sigurðardóttir, A. G. (2017). Trait affection given and received: A test of Hofstede’s theoretical framework. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 46(2), 161-172. 17475759.2017.1292944; pgs. 163-164.

    36 Mansson, D. H., & Sigurðardóttir, A. G. (2017). Trait affection given and received: A test of Hofstede’s theoretical framework. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 46(2), 161-172. 17475759.2017.1292944; pg. 168.

    37 Ting-Toomey, S. (1988). Intercultural conflicts: A face-negotiation theory. In Y. Y. Kim & W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.), Theories in intercultural communication (pp. 213-235). Sage.

    38 Ting-Toomey, S. (2005). The matrix of face: An updated face-negotiation theory. In W.B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 71–92). Sage.

    39 Ting-Toomey, S., & Kurogi, A. (1998). Facework competence in intercultural conflict: An updated face-negotiation theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(2), 187-225. S0147-1767(98)00004-2

    40 Earley, P. C., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford University Press.

    41 Ang, S., Van Dyne, L. (Eds.). (2008). Preface and Acknowledgements. In Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications (pp. xv-xviii). M. E. Sharpe; pg. xv.

    42 Morrison, T., & Conaway, W. A. (2006). Kiss, bow, or shake hands: The bestselling guide to doing business in more than 60 countries. Adams Media.

    43 Ang, S., Van Dyne, L. (Eds.). (2008). Conceptualization of cultural intelligence definition, distinctiveness, and nomological network. In Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications (pp. 3-55). M. E. Sharpe.

    44 Shapiro, S. L., & Carlson, L. E. (2017). The art and science of mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

    45 Hu, H. (1944). The Chinese concepts of “face.” American Anthropologist, 46(1), 45-64.

    46 Ibid.; pg. 45.

    47 Ibid.; pg. 45.

    48 Ho, D. Y.-f. (1976). On the concept of face. American Journal of Sociology, 81(4), 867-884. stable/2777600

    49 Upton-McLaughlin, S. (2013). Gaining and losing face in China. The China Culture Corner. Retrieved from; para. 2.

    End of Chapter Quiz Answer Key

    1. C
    2. B
    3. C
    4. A
    5. B


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