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13.6: Guidelines for Introductions and Conclusions
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- Recognize the functions of introductions and conclusions;
- Identify the primary elements of a speech introduction;
- Identify the primary elements of a speech conclusion;
- Construct introductions and conclusions.
- rambling and meandering, not getting to the point;
- speaking to become comfortable;
- saying the specific purpose statement, especially as first words;
- choosing a technique that hurts credibility, such as pedantic (defining words like “love”) or a method that is not audience-centered;
- beginning to talk as you approach the platform or lectern—reach your destination, pause, smile, and begin;
- reading your introduction from your notes; it is vital to establish eye contact in the introduction, so knowing it very well is important;
- talking too fast; let your audience get used to your voice by speaking emphatically and clearly.
- signal the end multiple times. In other words, no “multiple conclusions” or saying “As I close” more than once;
- rambling; if you signal the end, end;
- talking as you leave the platform or lectern
- indicating with facial expression or body language that you were not happy with the speech. In the following sections, we will discuss specifically what you should include in the introduction and conclusion and offer a number of options for accomplishing each.