What is the purpose of DNA replication? Explain in a few sentences what happens during DNA replication. When do DNA mutations happen? And how does this create phenotypic variation (i.e., different phenotypes of the same physical trait)?
Using your own words, what are homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids? What are the key differences between mitosis and meiosis?
Determine if the pedigree diagram below (Figure 3.41) represents an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance. You should write the genotype (i.e., AA, Aa, or aa) above each square to help you (note: there may sometimes be two possible answers for a square’s genotype). Please also explain why you concluded a particular pattern of inheritance.
Use base pairing rules to transcribe the following DNA template sequence into mRNA: GTAAAGGTGCTGGCCATC. Next, use the protein codon table (see Figure 3.21) to translate the sequence. In regard to transcription, explain what the significance is of the first and last codon/protein in the sequence.
In your opinion, what do you think the benefits are of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing? What are the drawbacks and/or greater ethical concerns? Do you think benefits outweigh concerns?
Imagine that you submit your DNA sample to a genetic testing company and among the various diseases for which they test, there is an allele that is associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. You have the option to view your Alzheimer’s result or to not view your result. What do you do and why?