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3.9: Review Questions

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    • What is the purpose of DNA replication? Explain in a few sentences what happens during DNA replication. When do DNA mutations happen? And how does this create phenotypic variation (i.e., different phenotypes of the same physical trait)?
    • Using your own words, what are homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids? What are the key differences between mitosis and meiosis?
    • Determine if the pedigree diagram below (Figure 3.41) represents an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance. You should write the genotype (i.e., AA, Aa, or aa) above each square to help you (note: there may sometimes be two possible answers for a square’s genotype). Please also explain why you concluded a particular pattern of inheritance.
    Pedigree where 6 of 15 individuals have the trait. On 2 separate branches parents without the trait have a biological child who does.
    Figure 3.41: A four generation pedigree depicting a trait with an undetermined inheritance pattern. Credit: X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance (Figure 3.46) original to Explorations: An Open Invitation to Biological Anthropology by Beth Shook is under a CC BY-NC 4.0 License.
    • Use base pairing rules to transcribe the following DNA template sequence into mRNA: GTAAAGGTGCTGGCCATC. Next, use the protein codon table (see Figure 3.21) to translate the sequence. In regard to transcription, explain what the significance is of the first and last codon/protein in the sequence.
    • In your opinion, what do you think the benefits are of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing? What are the drawbacks and/or greater ethical concerns? Do you think benefits outweigh concerns?
    • Imagine that you submit your DNA sample to a genetic testing company and among the various diseases for which they test, there is an allele that is associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. You have the option to view your Alzheimer’s result or to not view your result. What do you do and why?

    This page titled 3.9: Review Questions is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Hayley Mann (Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.