Skip to main content
Social Sci LibreTexts

10.10: End of Chapter Content

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)


    Boaz, Noel Thomas, and Russell L. Ciochon. 2004. Dragon Bone Hill: An Ice-Age Saga of Homo erectus. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Human Evolution by the Smithsonian Institution. Produced by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, this website covers many aspects of human evolution including 3-D models of hominin fossils.

    Lewin, Roger, and Robert A. Foley. 2004. Principles of Human Evolution. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.

    Mutu, Kari. “Honour Finds Kenya’s Oldest Fossil Hunter Kamoya Kimeu.” The East African, July 19, 2021.

    Nordling, Linda. “Raising Up African Paleoanthropologists.” SAPIENS, September 28, 2021. Accessed February 24, 2023.

    Risen, Clay. “Kamoya Kimeu, Fossil-Hunting ‘Legend’ in East Africa Is Dead.” New York Times, August 11, 2022. Accessed February 24, 2023.

    Stoneking, Mark. 2015. “Of Lice and Men: The Molecular Evolution of Human Lice.” Lecture, Center for Academic Research & Training in Anthropogeny, San Diego, California, October 16, 2015. Accessed February 24, 2023.

    Tarlach, Gemma. 2015. “The First Humans to Know Winter.” Discover, February 26.

    Ungar, Peter S. 2017. Evolution’s Bite: A Story of Teeth, Diet, and Human Origins. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


    Aiello, Leslie C., and Peter Wheeler. 1995. “The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis.” Current Anthropology 36 (2): 199–221.

    Anton, Susan C., Richard Potts, and Leslie C. Aiello. 2014. “Evolution of Early Homo: An Integrated Biological Perspective.” Science 345 (6192) doi: 10.1126/science.1236828.

    Anton, Susan C., and J. Josh Snodgrass. 2012. “Origins and Evolution of Genus Homo: New Perspectives.” Current Anthropology 53 (S6): S479–S496.

    Ashton, Nick, Simon G. Lewis, Isabelle De Groote, Sarah M. Duffy, Martin Bates, Richard Bates, Peter Hoare, et al. 2014. “Hominin Footprints from Early Pleistocene Deposits at Happisburgh, UK.” PLOS ONE 9 (2): e88329.

    Belmaker, Miriam. 2010. “Early Pleistocene Faunal Connections between Africa and Eurasia: An Ecological Perspective.” In Out of Africa I: The First Hominin Colonization of Eurasia, edited by John G. Fleagle, John J. Shea, Frederick E. Grine, Andrea L. Baden, and Richard E. Leakey, 183–205. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

    Blumenschine, Robert, Henry T. Bunn, Valerius Geist, Fumiko Ikawa-Smith, Curtis W. Marean, Anthony G. Payne, John Tooby, J. Nikolaas, and Van Der Merwe. 1987. “Characteristics of an Early Hominid Scavenging Niche [and Comments and Reply].” Current Anthropology 28 (4): 383–407.

    Bower, Bruce. 2004. “Evolution’s Buggy Ride.” Science News 166 (15): 230–230.

    Bramble, Dennis M., and Daniel E. Lieberman. 2004. “Endurance Running and the Evolution of Homo.” Nature 432 (7015): 345–352.

    Coolidge, Frederick L., and Thomas Grant Wynn. 2017. The Rise of Homo Sapiens: The Evolution of Modern Thinking. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Dean, M. Christopher, and B. Holly Smith. 2009. “Growth and Development of the Nariokotome Youth, KNM-WT 15000.” In The First Humans–Origin and Early Evolution of the Genus Homo: Contributions from the Third Stony Brook Human Evolution Symposium and Workshop October 37, 2006, edited by Frederick E. Grine, John G. Fleagle, and Richard E. Leakey, 101–120. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

    deMenocal, Peter B. 2014. “Climate Shocks.” Scientific American 311 (3): 48–53.

    Dennell, Robin, and Wil Roebroeks. 2005. “An Asian Perspective on Early Human Dispersal from Africa.” Nature 438 (7071): 1099–1104.

    Hawkes, Kristen, James F. O’Connell, Nicholas G. Blurton Jones, Helen Alvarez, and Eric L. Charnov. 1998. “Grandmothering, Menopause, and the Evolution of Human Life Histories.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95 (3): 1336–1339.

    Herries, A. I. R., J. M. Martin, A. B. Leece, J. W. Adams, G. Boschian, R. Joannes-Boyau, T. R. Edwards, et al. 2020. “Contemporaneity of Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and early Homo erectus in South Africa.” Science 368 (6486).

    Hill, Kim, and Hillard Kaplan. 1999. “Life History Traits in Humans: Theory and Empirical Studies.” Annual Review of Anthropology 28: 397–430.

    Hlubik, Sarah, Francesco Berna, Craig Feibel, David Braun, and John W. K. Harris. 2017. “Researching the Nature of Fire at 1.5 Mya on the Site of FxJj20 AB, Koobi Fora, Kenya, Using High-Resolution Spatial Analysis and FTIR Spectrometry.” Current Anthropology 58 (S16): S243–S257.

    Jablonski, Nina G. 2010. “The Naked Truth.” Scientific American 302 (2): 42–49.

    Kamberov, Yana G., Elinor K. Karlsson, Gerda L. Kamberova, Daniel E. Lieberman, Pardis C. Sabeti, Bruce A. Morgan, and Clifford J. Tabin. 2015. “A Genetic Basis of Variation in Eccrine Sweat Gland and Hair Follicle Density.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (32): 9932–9937.

    Kittler, R., M. Kayser, and M. Stoneking. 2003. “Molecular Evolution of Pediculus Humanus and the Origin of Clothing.” Current Biology 13 (16): 1414–1417.

    Leakey, Louis S. B., Phillip V. Tobias, and John R. Napier. 1964. “A New Species of Genus Homo from Olduvai Gorge.” Nature 202: 308–312.

    Lemorini, Cristina, Thomas W. Plummer, David R. Braun, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Peter W. Ditchfield, Laura C. Bishop, Fritz Hertel, et al. 2014. “Old Stones’ Song: Use-Wear Experiments and Analysis of the Oldowan Quartz and Quartzite Assemblage from Kanjera South (Kenya).” Journal of Human Evolution 72: 10–25.

    Lisiecki, Lorraine E., and Maureen E. Raymo. 2005. “A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records.” Paleoceanography 20 (1)

    Lordkipanidze, David, Marcia S. Ponce de León, Ann Margvelashvili, Yoel Rak, G. Philip Rightmire, Abesalom Vekua, and Christoph P. E. Zollikofer. 2013. “A Complete Skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the Evolutionary Biology of Early Homo.” Science 342 (6156): 326–333.

    Matsu’ura, S., M. Kondo, T. Danhara, S. Sakata, H. Iwano, T. Hirata, I. Kurniawan, et al. 2020. “Age Control of the First Appearance Datum for Javanese Homo erectus in the Sangiran Area.” Science 367 (6474): 210–214.

    Qiu, Jane. 2016. “How China Is Rewriting the Book on Human Origins.” Nature 535: 22–25.

    Reed, David L., Jessica E. Light, Julie M. Allen, and Jeremy J. Kirchman. 2007. “Pair of Lice Lost or Parasites Regained: The Evolutionary History of Anthropoid Primate Lice.” BMC Biology 5 (1): 7. doi: 10.1186/1741-7007-5-7.

    Rizal, Y., K. E. Westaway, Y. Zaim, G. D. van den Bergh, E. A. Bettis, 3rd, M. J. Morwood, O. F. Huffman, R. Grün, et al. 2020. “Last Appearance of Homo erectus at Ngandong, Java, 117,000–108,000 Years Ago.” Nature 577 (7790): 381–385.

    Roche, Helene, Robert J. Blumenschine, and John J. Shea. 2009. “Origins and Adaptations of Early Homo: What Archeology Tells Us.” In The First Humans: Origin and Early Evolution of the Genus Homo, edited by Frederick E. Grine, John G. Fleagle, and Richard E. Leakey, 135–147. New York: Springer.

    Rogers, Alan R., David Iltis, and Stephen Wooding. 2004. “Genetic Variation at the MC1R l Locus and the Time since Loss of Human Body Hair.” Current Anthropology 45 (1): 105–108.

    Ruff, Christopher. 2009. “Relative Limb Strength and Locomotion in Homohabilis.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 138 (1): 90–100.

    Shipton, Ceri, James Blinkhorn, Paul S. Breeze, Patrick Cuthbertson, Nick Drake, Huw S. Groucutt, Richard P. Jennings, et al. 2018. “Acheulean Technology and Landscape Use at Dawadmi, Central Arabia.” PloS one 13 (7): e0200497–e0200497.

    Simpson, Scott W., Jay Quade, Naomi E. Levin, Robert Butler, Guillaume Dupont-Nivet, Melanie Everett, and Sileshi Semaw. 2008. “A Female Homoerectus Pelvis from Gona, Ethiopia.” Science 322 (5904): 1089–1092.

    Ungar, Peter S., and Robert S. Scott. 2009. “Dental Evidence for Diets of Early Homo.” In The First Humans: Origin and Early Evolution of the Genus Homo, edited by Frederick E. Grine, John G. Fleagle, and Richard E. Leakey, 121–134. New York: Springer.

    Villmoare, Brian, William H. Kimbel, Chalachew Seyoum, Christopher J. Campisano, Erin N. DiMaggio, John Rowan, David R. Braun, J. Ramón Arrowsmith, and Kaye E. Reed. 2015. “Early Homo at 2.8 Ma From Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia.” Science 347 (6228): 1352–1355.

    Wood, Bernard. 2014. “Human Evolution: Fifty Years after Homohabilis.” Nature 508 (7494): 31–33.

    Wood, Bernard, and Mark Collard. 1999. “The Changing Face of Genus Homo.” Evolutionary Anthropology 8 (6): 195–207.

    Wrangham, Richard. 2009. Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human. New York: Basic Books.

    Zhu, Zhaoyu, Robin Dennell, Weiwen Huang, Yi Wu, Shifan Qiu, Shixia Yang, and Zhiguo Rao. 2018. “Hominin Occupation of the Chinese Loess Plateau Since about 2.1 Million Years Ago.” Nature 559: 608–612.


    The author gratefully acknowledges funding from the California Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office Zero Textbook Cost Degree Grant Program—Implementation Phase 2.

    Image Description

    Figure 10.11: Map showing the locations of Homo erectus fossils around Africa and Eurasia. These include: Happisburgh, Norfolk, English dated to 950,000 ya; Atapuerca, Spain dated to 1.2mya; Gran Dolina, Spain dated to 800,000 ya; Dmanisi, Georgia dated to 1.77 mya; Lake Turkana Basin, Kenya dated to 1.8mya; Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania dated to 1.4mya; Olorgesailie, Kenya dated to 1.2mya to 490,000ya; Zhoukoudian, China dated to 780,000ya to 400,000ya; Yuanmou, China dated to 1.7mya; Sangiran, Java dated to 1.6mya; Trinil, Java dated to 1.66mya; Ngandona, Lava dated to 1.66 mya.

    This page titled 10.10: End of Chapter Content is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Bonnie Yoshida-Levine (Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.