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11.9: Conclusions

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    Hominin Archaic Homo sapiens
    Dates 600,000–200,000 years ago (although some regional variation)
    Region(s) Africa, Europe, and Asia
    Famous discoveries Broken Hill (Zambia), Atapuerca (Spain)
    Brain size 1,200 cc average
    Dentition Slightly smaller teeth in back of mouth, larger front teeth
    Cranial features Emerging forehead, no chin, projecting occipital region
    Postcranial features Robust skeleton
    Culture Varied regionally, but some continue to use Acheulean handaxe, others adopt Mousterian tool culture
    Other Lots of regional variation in this species
    Species Homo naledi
    Dates 335,000–236,000 years ago
    Region(s) South Africa
    Famous discoveries Rising Star Cave
    Brain size 500 cc average
    Dentition Reduced tooth size
    Cranial features Sagittal keel, large brow, well-developed frontal region
    Postcranial features Suspensory shoulder
    Culture unknown
    Other N/A
    Hominin Neanderthals
    Dates 150,000–40,000 years ago
    Region(s) Western Europe, Middle East, and Western Asia only
    Famous discoveries Shanidar (Iraq), La Chapelle-aux-Saints (France)
    Brain size 1500 cc average
    Dentition Retromolar gap
    Cranial features Large brow ridge, midfacial prognathism, large infraorbital foramina, occipital bun
    Postcranial features Robust skeleton with short and stocky body, increased musculature, barrel chest
    Culture Mousterian tools often constructed using the Levallois technique
    Other N/A
    Species Homo floresiensis
    Dates 100,000–60,000 years ago, perhaps as recently as 17,000 years ago
    Region(s) Liang Bua, island of Flores, Indonesia
    Famous discoveries “The Hobbit”
    Brain size 400 cc average
    Dentition unknown
    Cranial features Sagittal keel, arching brow ridges, nuchal torus, no chin
    Postcranial features Very short stature (approximately 3.5 ft.)
    Culture Tools similar to other tools found on the island of Flores
    Other N/A
    Hominin Denisovans
    Dates 100,000–30,000 years ago
    Region(s) Siberia
    Famous discoveries Child’s finger bone and adult molar
    Brain size unknown
    Dentition Large molars (from limited evidence)
    Cranial features unknown
    Postcranial features unknown
    Culture unknown
    Other Closely related to Neanderthals (genetically)

    This page titled 11.9: Conclusions is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Amanda Wolcott Paske & AnnMarie Beasley Cisneros (Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.