For Further Exploration
First-person virtual tour of Lascaux cave with annotated cave art: Ministère de la Culture and Musée d’Archéologie Nationale. “Visit the cave” Lascaux website.
Online anthropology magazine articles related to paleoanthropology and human evolution: SAPIENS. “Evolution.” SAPIENS website.
Various presentations of information about hominin evolution: Smithsonian Institution. “What does it mean to be human?” Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History website.
Magazine-style articles on archaeology and paleoanthropology: ThoughtCo. “Archaeology.” ThoughtCo. Website.
Database of comparisons across hominins and primates: University of California, San Diego. “MOCA Domains.” Center for Academic Research & Training in Anthropogeny website.
Engaging book that covers human-made changes to the environment with industrialization and globalization: Kolbert, Elizabeth. 2014. The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History. New York: Bloomsbury.
Overview of what human life was like among the environmental shifts of the Ice Age: Woodward, Jamie. 2014. The Ice Age: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: OUP Press.
Recent review paper about the current state of paleoanthropology research: Stringer, C. 2016. “The Origin and Evolution of Homo sapiens.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 371 (1698).
Overview of the history of American paleoanthropology and the many debates that have occurred over the years: Trinkaus, E. 2018. “One Hundred Years of Paleoanthropology: An American Perspective.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 165 (4): 638–651.
Amazing magazine article that synthesizes hominin evolution and why it is important to study this subject: Wheelwright, Jeff. 2015. “Days of Dysevolution.” Discover 36 (4): 33–39.
Fascinating research on Ötzi, a mummy from 5,000 years ago: Wierer, Ursula, Simona Arrighi, Stefano Bertola, Günther Kaufmann, Benno Baumgarten, Annaluisa Pedrotti, Patrizia Pernter, and Jacques Pelegrin. 2018. “The Iceman’s Lithic Toolkit: Raw Material, Technology, Typology and Use.” PLOS One 13 (6): e0198292. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198292.
PBS NOVA series covering the expansion of modern Homo sapiens and interbreeding with archaic humans: Brown, Nicholas, dir. 2015. First Peoples. Edmonton: Wall to Wall Television. Amazon Prime Video.
PBS NOVA special featuring the footprints found in White Sands National Park: Falk, Bella, dir. 2016. Ice Age Footprints. Boston: Windfall Films. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/video/...ge-footprints/.
PBS NOVA special about how modern humans evolved adaptations to different environments. Shows how present-day people live around the world: Thompson, Niobe, dir. 2016. Great Human Odyssey. Edmonton: Clearwater Documentary. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/great-human-odyssey.html.
Araujo, Bernardo B. A., Luiz Gustavo R. Oliveira-Santos, Matheus S. Lima-Ribeiro, José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho, and Fernando A. S. Fernandez. 2017. “Bigger Kill Than Chill: The Uneven Roles of Humans and Climate on Late Quaternary Megafaunal Extinctions.” Quaternary International 431: 216–222.
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Fletcher, M. S., T. Hall, and A. N. Alexandra. 2021. “The Loss of an Indigenous Constructed Landscape Following British Invasion of Australia: An Insight into the Deep Human Imprint on the Australian Landscape.” Ambio 50(1): 138–149.
Fu, Qiaomei, Mateja Hajdinjak, Oana Teodora Moldovan, Silviu Constantin, Swapan Mallick, Pontus Skoglund, Nick Patterson, et al. 2015. “An Early Modern Human from Romania with a Recent Neanderthal Ancestor.” Nature 524 (7564): 216–219.
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Gammage, B. 2008. “Plain Facts: Tasmania under Aboriginal Management.” Landscape Research 33 (2): 241–254.
Germonpré, Mietje, Martina Lázničková-Galetová, and Mikhail V. Sablin. 2012. “Palaeolithic Dog Skulls at the Gravettian Předmostí Site, the Czech Republic.” Journal of Archaeological Science 39 (1): 184–202.
Gröning, Flora, Jia Liu, Michael J. Fagan, and Paul O’Higgins. 2011. “Why Do Humans Have Chins? Testing the Mechanical Significance of Modern Human Symphyseal Morphology with Finite Element Analysis.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144 (4): 593–606.
Harvati, Katerina. 2009. “Into Eurasia: A Geometric Morphometric Reassessment of the Upper Cave (Zhoukoudian) Specimens.” Journal of Human Evolution 57 (6): 751–762.
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Henshilwood, Christopher S., Francesco d’Errico, Karen L. van Niekerk, Yvan Coquinot, Zenobia Jacobs, Stein-Erik Lauritzen, Michel Menu, and Renata García-Moreno. 2011. “A 100,000-Year-Old Ochre-Processing Workshop at Blombos Cave, South Africa.” Science 334 (6053): 219–222.
Hershkovitz, Israel, Gerhard W. Weber, Rolf Quam, Mathieu Duval, Rainer Grün, Leslie Kinsley, Avner Ayalon, et al. 2018. “The Earliest Modern Humans Outside Africa.” Science 359 (6374): 456–459.
Hublin, Jean-Jacques, Abdelouahed Ben-Ncer, Shara E. Bailey, Sarah E. Freidline, Simon Neubauer, Matthew M. Skinner, Inga Bergmann, et al. 2017. “New Fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the Pan-African Origin of Homo sapiens.” Nature 546 (7657): 289–292.
Lepofsky, D., N. F. Smith, N. Cardinal, J. Harper, M. Morris, M., Gitla (Elroy White), Randy Bouchard, et al. 2015. “Ancient Shellfish Mariculture on the Northwest Coast of North America.” American Antiquity 80 (2): 236–259.
Lieberman, Daniel E. 2015. “Human Locomotion and Heat Loss: An Evolutionary Perspective.” Comprehensive Physiology 5 (1): 99–117.
Lieberman, Daniel E., Brandeis M. McBratney, and Gail Krovitz. 2002. “The Evolution and Development of Cranial Form in Homo sapiens.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99 (3): 1134–1139.
Lieberman, Daniel E., Osbjorn M. Pearson, and Kenneth M. Mowbray. 2000. “Basicranial Influence on Overall Cranial Shape.” Journal of Human Evolution 38 (2): 291–315.
Liu, Wu, María Martinón-Torres, Yan-jun Cai, Song Xing, Hao-wen Tong, Shu-wen Pei, Mark Jan Sier, Xiao-hong Wu, R. Lawrence Edwards, and Hai Cheng. 2015. “The Earliest Unequivocally Modern Humans in Southern China.” Nature 526 (7575): 696-699.
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McCarthy, Robert C., and Lynn Lucas. 2014. “A Morphometric Reassessment of Bou-Vp-16/1 from Herto, Ethiopia.” Journal of Human Evolution 74: 114–117.
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McNiven, I. J., J. Crouch, T. Richards, N. Dolby, and G. Jacobsen. 2012. “Dating Aboriginal Stone-Walled Fishtraps at Lake Condah, Southeast Australia.” Journal of Archaeological Science 39 (2): 268–286.
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I could not have undertaken this project without the help of many who got me to where I am today. I extend sincere thank yous to the many colleagues and former students who have inspired me to keep learning and talking about anthropology. Thank you also to all who are involved in this textbook project. The anonymous reviewers truly sparked improvements to the chapter. Lastly, the staff of Starbucks #5772 also contributed immensely to this text.
Figure 12.22: The map shows the areas where agriculture was independently invented around the world and where they spread. These include: 1. the southeastern United States, which spread northwest and northeast; central Mexico, which spread north and south through Central America; the northwestern coast of South America, which spread to the caribbean, south, and east; the middle east, which spread to Europe, North Africa, and East Africa; central China, which spread north, south, west and south east; New Guinea, which spread northwest and southeast. The Sahel region around sub-Saharan Africa Africa is another probable site.