For Further Exploration
Lents, Nathan H. 2018. Human Errors: A Panorama of Our Glitches, from Pointless Bones to Broken Genes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Stearns, Stephen C., and Jacob C. Koella, eds. 2008. Evolution in Health and Disease. 2nd edition. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
Zuk, Marlene. 2013. Paleofantasy: What Evolution Really Tells Us about Sex, Diet, and How We Live. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Abid, Zaynah, Amanda J. Cross, and Rashmi Sinha. 2014. “Meat, Dairy, and Cancer.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (S1): 386S–393S.
Akil, Luma, and H. Anwar Ahmad. 2011. “Relationships between Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases in Four Southern States and Colorado.” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 22 (S4): 61–72.
Ali, Aus Tariq. 2014. “Reproductive Factors and the Risk of Endometrial Cancers.” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 24 (3): 384–393.
American Heart Association. 2018. “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2018 Update: A Report.” Circulation 137 (12). Accessed April 7, 2023. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1...00000000000558.
American Psychiatric Association (APA). 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder. 5th Edition: DSM-5. Washington, DC: APA.
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Armelagos, George J., Peter J. Brown, and Bethany Turner. 2005. “Evolutionary, Historical and Political Economic Perspectives on Health and Disease.” Social Science and Medicine 61 (4): 755-765.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2014. “Breastfeeding Report Card: United States/2014.” Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2022. “CDC Releases Updated Maps of America’s High Levels of Inactivity.” January 20. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2...ivity-map.html.
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Davis, Mike. 2005. The Monster at Our Door: The Global Threat of Avian Flu. New York: Owl Books.
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Dutton, Denis. 2009. The Art Instinct: Beauty, Pleasure, and Human Evolution. New York: Bloomsbury.
Eaton, S. Boyd, Melvin Konner, and Marjorie Shostak. 1988. “Stone Agers in the Fast Lane: Chronic Degenerative Diseases in Evolutionary Perspective.” American Journal of Medicine 84 (4): 739–749.
Eaton, S. Boyd, Malcolm C. Pike, Roger V. Short, Nancy C. Lee, James Trussell, Robert A. Hatcher, James W. Wood, et al. 1994. “Women’s Reproductive Cancers in Evolutionary Context.” The Quarterly Review of Biology 69 (3): 353–367.
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Greaves, Mel. 2015. “Evolutionary Determinants of Cancer.” Cancer Discovery 5 (8): 806–820.
Green, Carmen R., Karen O. Anderson, Tamara A. Baker, Lisa C. Campbell, Sheila Decker, Robert B. Fillingim, Donna A. Kalukalani, et al. 2003. “The Unequal Burden of Pain: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Pain.” Pain Medicine 4 (3): 277–294.
Greenspan, Louise, and Julianna Deardorff. 2014. The New Puberty: How to Navigate Early Development in Today’s Girls. New York: Rodale.
Hamilton, Cheryl. 2011. Communicating for Results, a Guide for Business and the Professions, 9th Edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Harper, Kristin, and George Armelagos. 2010. “The Changing Disease-Scape in the Third Epidemiological Transition.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7 (2): 675–697.
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Karn, Mitesh, and Muna Sharma. 2021. “Climate Change, Natural Calamities, and the Triple Burden of Disease.” Nature Climate Change 11: 796–797.
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Figure 16.4: Obesity rates by country, 2017. The following are the rates as percentages of the total population of these countries:
- Japan, 3.7%
- India, 5%
- Korea, 5.3%
- Indonesia, 5.7%
- China, 7%
- Italy, 9.8%
- Switzerland, 10.2%
- Austria, 14.7%
- France, 15.3%
- Poland, 16.7%
- Spain, 16.7%
- Greece, 17%
- Israel, 17.8%
- Iceland, 19%
- Russian Federation, 19.6%
- Brazil, 20.8%
- Columbia, 20.9%
- Ghana, 22%
- Turkey, 22.3%
- Iceland, 23%
- Germany, 23.6%
- Costa Rica, 24.4%
- Finland, 24.8%
- Chile, 25.1%
- Canada, 25.8%
- South Africa, 26.5%
- United Kingdom, 26.9%
- Australia, 26.9%
- Mexico, 27.9%
- United States, 38.2%
- Egypt, 39%
Figure 16.10: This chart depicts decreasing ages at time of first menstruation (menarche) in seven countries:
- In Germany/Finland, the age of menarche was approximately 16.5 years in 1860. This dropped to approximately 13.5 years by 1940.
- In Norway, the age of menarche was approximately 17 years of age in 1850. This dropped to approximately 13.3 by 1950, where it remained for 30 more years.
- In Sweden, the age of menarche was approximately 15.7 in 1890, dropping to approximately 14 years by 1950.
- There appears to be less data for Denmark. For Denmark, menarche was 13.7 in 1950 and dropped to approximately 13.3 by 1960.
- In the US, the age of menarche was 14 years in 1905. This dropped to 11 by 1990. This is the lowest data point on the chart.
- In the UK, the age of menarche was 13.3 in 1945, dropping to approximately 12.7 by 1970.