Acetabulum: Shallow cavity of the coxa for articulation of the head of the femur.
Acromion: Lateral projection of the spine of scapula.
Anatomical position: Standing upright, facing forward with arms at the side and palms facing forward.
Anterior (ventral): Toward the front.
Appendicular skeleton: Part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the pectoral and pelvic girdls, arms, and legs.
Atlanto-axial joint: Joint between the atlas (C1 vertebrae) and the axis (C2 vertebrae), used for turning the head side to side.
Atlanto-occipital joint: Joint between the atlas (C1 vertebrae) and occipital bone, used for nodding the head.
Auricular surface: Roughened joint surface for articulation of the sacrum.
Axial skeleton: Part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk.
Body of pubis: Superior bar of the pubis.
Body of the sternum: Central portion of the sternum where ribs articulate.
Buccal: Toward the cheek.
Calcaneal tuberosity: Roughened attachment site at the posterior calcaneus.
Calcaneus: Large bone that forms the heel.
Cancellous (or trabecular) bone: Porous bone found at the ends of long bones and within flat and irregular bones.
Canines: Conical teeth with a single pointed cusp used to puncture a food item.
Carpal bones: The 8 bones of the wrist: scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate.
Centrum: Anterior body of vertebra; the main weight-bearing element of the vertebra.
Cervical region: Neck region that contains 7 vertebrae.
Clavicle: The collarbone, which connects the sternum to the scapula to form the pectoral girdle.
Coccyx: Small triangular bone that projects from the inferior part of sacrum.
Coracoid process: Hook-shaped projection from the anterior surface of the scapula.
Coronal (frontal) plane: An imaginary line that divides the body into anterior and posterior halves.
Coronal suture: Joint that connects the frontal bone to the paired parietal bones.
Coronoid process: Triangular eminence from the superior part of the mandibular ramus.
Coronoid process of ulna: Triangular projection from the anterior surface of proximal ulna.
Cortical (or compact) bone: Dense, outer surface of bone.
Cranial sutures: Fibrous joints that connect bones of the skull and face.
Cranium: Bones of the head that support the brain and face.
Cribriform foramina: Small openings in the superior plate of the ethmoid that transmit olfactory nerves.
Deltoid tuberosity: Lateral projection for attachment of deltoid muscle.
Demifacets: Partial joint surfaces on the lateral surface of the centrum of thoracic vertebrae.
Dens (or odontoid process): Projection from superior surface of centrum of C2.
Diaphysis: Shaft or central part of a long bone.
Distal: Further away from the center of the body or point of attachment.
Endochondral bone formation: Process of bone formation that occurs from a cartilage model.
Epiphysis: End of long bones.
Ethmoid bone: Unpaired bone of the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain.
External occipital protuberance (EOP): Projection from the occipital superior to nuchal lines.
Femur: Long bone of the thigh.
Fibula: Lateral bone of the leg.
Flat bone: Bones that are flat with thin layers of cortical bone surrounding cancellous bone.
Foramen magnum: Large opening in the occipital where the spinal cord passes.
Frontal bone: An unpaired bone that forms the anterior and superior part of the cranium.
Glabella: Part of the forehead between the eyebrows.
Glenoid cavity (or fossa): Shallow depression for the articulation of the head of the humerus.
Gluteal tuberosity: Roughened attachment site for the gluteus maximus muscle.
Gonial (or mandibular) angle: Posterior border of the mandible at the junction of the ramus and body.
Greater sciatic notch: Large indentation of the ilium.
Greater trochanter: Large projection from the lateral surface of the proximal femur.
Greater tubercle: Large projection on the superior and lateral surface of the humerus.
Head of rib: Posterior part of the rib that articulates with the centrum.
Humerus: Long bone of the arm.
Hyoid bone: U-shaped bone in the neck that does not articulate with another bone.
Ilium: Large flat bone of the superior part of the coxa.
Incisal surface: Toward the cutting edge.
Incisors: Flat and shovel shaped teeth that are used to bite into a food item.
Inferior (caudal): Away from the head or downward.
Inferior articular process: Inferior projections from the vertebral arch that connect to superior articular processes of the inferior vertebra.
Inferior nasal concha: Scroll-like paired bones that attach to the lateral part of the nasal cavity.
Intervertebral disc joints: Fibrocartilaginous joints that connect adjacent centra of vertebrae.
Intramembranous bone formation: Process of bone formation that occurs in mesenchyme and gives rise to flat bones of the skull.
Irregular bone: Bones that have a complex appearance.
Ischial spine: Thin, square projection from the ischium.
Ischial tuberosity: Large, round protrusion of the posterior and inferior ischium.
Ischiopubic ramus: Thin bar of bone that unites the pubis and ischium.
Ischium: The posterior and inferior portion of the os coxae.
Kyphosis: Anterior curvature of the spine.
Lacrimal bone: Paired bones that form the anterior and medial part of the orbit.
Lambdoidal suture: Joint that connects the parietal and occipital bones.
Lamina: Flattened portion of the vertebral arch.
Lateral: Further away from the midline.
Lateral malleolus: Prominence of the distal fibula that forms the outer part of the ankle.
Lesser trochanter: Projection from the medial surface of the proximal femur.
Lesser tubercle: Projection on the anterior and superior surface of the humerus.
Linea aspera: Elongated projection of the posterior surface of the femur.
Lingual: Toward the tongue.
Long bone: Bones that are longer than they are wide.
Lordosis: Posterior curvature of the spine.
Lumbar region: Lower back region that consists of 5 vertebrae.
Mandible: Lower jaw bone.
Mandibular condyle: Rounded projection of the mandibular ramus.
Mandibular fossa: Depression at the base of the temporal bone where the mandibular condyle articulates to form the temporomandibular (or jaw) joint.
Manubrium: Upper part of the sternum.
Mastoid process: Bony projection from the back of the temporal bone.
Maxilla bone: Upper jaw bone.
Medial: Toward the midline.
Medial malleolus: Prominence of the distal tibia that forms the inner part of the ankle.
Medullary cavity: Central cavity in the diaphysis of long bones that contains bone marrow.
Mental protuberance (eminence): Triangular projection at the front of the mandible.
Mesial: Toward the middle.
Metacarpal: The 5 bones of the palm of the hand.
Metaphysis: Junction between diaphysis and epiphysis where bone growth occurs.
Metatarsal: The 5 bones at the distal part of the foot.
Metopic suture: Joint that connects paired frontal bones and usually fuses early in childhood.
Midsagittal plane: Plane that divides the body vertically into equal left and right halves. It is also called the medial plane, because it occurs on the midline of the body.
Molars: Teeth with flatter cusps that are used to grind food prior to swallowing.
Nasal aperture: Anterior opening of the nasal cavity.
Nasal bone: Paired bones that form the bridge of the nose and the roof of the nasal cavity.
Nasal spine: Bony projection from the inferior part of the nasal aperture.
Neurocranium: Bones of the cranium that protects the brain.
Nuchal lines: Ridges on occipital from attachment of neck and back muscles.
Obturator foramen: Irregularly shaped opening within the pubis and ischium.
Occipital bone: Unpaired bone at the posterior and base of the skull.
Occlusal: Toward the chewing surface.
Olecranon process: Posterior projection of the proximal ulna.
Orbit: Bony cavity that houses the eye and associated structures.
Os coxa: Hip bone, forms from the fusion of the ilium, ischium, and pubis.
Osteoblast: Cell that secretes the matrix for bone formation.
Osteoclast: A multinucleated bone cell that resorbs bone tissue during growth and repair.
Osteocyte: Mature bone cell that lies within the bone matrix.
Osteogenic cells: Stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts.
Osteology: The study of bones.
Palatine bone: Paired bones that form the posterior part of the hard palate.
Parasagittal plane: A vertical imaginary line adjacent to the sagittal plane that divides the body into unequal halves.
Parietal bone: Paired bones forming the lateral walls of the cranium.
Patella: Knee cap; a bone that forms in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle.
Pedicle: Projection that connects the lamina to the centrum.
Phalanges: The 14 bones of the digits.
Posterior (or dorsal): Toward the back.
Premolars: Teeth with two rounded cusps that are used to grind and mash a food item.
Proximal: Closer to the center of the body or point of attachment.
Pterygoid plates: Flat projections of the sphenoid that serve as attachment sites for chewing muscles and muscles of the throat.
Pubic symphysis: Joint surface that unites the two pubic bones anteriorly.
Pubis: Anterior and inferior portion of the coxa.
Radial tuberosity: Rough projection for attachment of biceps brachii muscle.
Radius: Lateral bone of the forearm.
Ramus of the mandible: Bar-like portion of the posterior mandible.
Rib tubercle: Posterior part of the rib that articulates with the transverse process.
Sacrum: Triangular bone at the base of the spine that consists of 5 fused vertebrae.
Sagittal plane: An imaginary line that divides the body into left and right halves.
Sagittal suture: Joint that connects the parietal bones.
Scapula: Flat, triangular bone that connects the upper limb to the pectoral girdle.
Sesamoid bone: Bones that form within a tendon.
Short bone: Bones that are as wide as they are long.
Sphenoid bone: Unpaired bone that forms the anterior part of the base of the skull.
Spine: Elongated ridge on posterior surface.
Spinous process: Posterior projection of vertebral arch at the junction of the lamina.
Squamosal suture: Joint that connects the parietal and temporal bones.
Sternal end of the rib: Anterior part of rib that connects to the sternal body through costal cartilage.
Sternum: Breastbone; flat bone of the anterior chest wall.
Styloid process: Thin projection from the base of the temporal bone.
Styloid process of radius: Projection from the distal radius.
Styloid process of ulna: Projection from the distal ulna.
Subpubic concavity: Depression below the pubic symphysis to the ischiopubic rami.
Superior (or cranial): Toward the head.
Superior articular process: Superior projections from the vertebral arch that connect to inferior articular processes of the superior vertebra.
Supraorbital margin: External ridge at the superior part of the orbit.
Talus: Ankle bone that articulates with the tibia.
Tarsal bones: The 7 bones at the proximal end of foot; talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuneiforms (medial, intermediate, lateral), and cuboid.
Temporal bone: Paired bones at the lateral and base of the skull that contain the middle and inner ear.
Temporal lines: Ridges on the parietal bone from attachments of temporalis muscle and fascia.
Temporal process of zygomatic bone: Long process that forms the anterior half of the zygomatic arch.
Thoracic region: Trunk region that consists of 12 vertebrae that attach to ribs.
Tibia: Medial bone of the leg.
Tibial tuberosity: Roughened attachment site on the anterior surface of the proximal tibia.
Transverse plane: An imaginary line that divides the body into superior and inferior halves.
Transverse process: Lateral projection at the junction of the pedicle and lamina.
Ulna: Medial bone of the forearm.
Vertebral arch: Circular ring of bone at the posterior vertebra.
Vertebral canal: Cavity that contains the spinal cord.
Vertebral foramen: Opening formed by the vertebral arch.
Viscerocranium: Bones of the cranium that make up the face skeleton.
Vomer: Unpaired bone that forms the inferior part of the bony nasal septum.
Xiphoid process: Lower part of the sternum.
Zygapophyseal (facet) joints: Synovial joints between the superior and inferior articular processes.
Zygomatic arch: Bridge of bone at the cheek.
Zygomatic bone: Paired bones that form the anterior and lateral parts of the mid-face.
Zygomatic process of temporal bone: Long process that forms the posterior half of the zygomatic arch.
Zygomatic process of the maxilla: Portion of the bone that articulates with the zygomatic bone to form the anterior portion of the zygomatic arch.