# 7.9: Final reflection

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The relationship between culture and group membership is complicated. Whereas scholars once defined certain types of groups, e.g. ethnic and racial groups, or national groups, on the basis of shared culture, group membership is now more likely to be seen as a matter of social identification. Moreover, social identities are fluid rather than fixed and are established by means of processes whereby group members negotiate the boundaries of the group as well as the degree to which they identify with valued groups.

Application

##### For Further Thought and Discussion
1. Do you identify with any particular ethnic group or groups? For each group with which you identify, explain how members of the group define themselves.
2. Do you think of yourself in terms of any racial identity? Explain.
3. How would you describe your national identity? How typical are you of other people from your country? … a) very typical, b) somewhat typical, or c) not very typical. … What makes you typical or atypical?
4. Some people embrace more than one identity, or feel themselves to have different identities in different social contexts. We can refer to this as hybridity. Are you a person with a hybrid identity? If so, can you elaborate on that experience?

### References

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