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3: Production and Structures

  • Page ID
    • Media Hack Team
    • University of Otago and others via Creative Commons
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    • 3.1: Political Economies
    • 3.2: Political Economies of Mass Culture
    • 3.3: The Audience Commodity
      Dallas Smythe (1981) is often cited as introducing a further key element to PE approaches to media, inverting the assumption central to prior approaches to PE which focussed upon meanings, messages and information as the central commodity which relates to media. Smythe instead contends that the economic relationship which is the primary driver of media as an industry is one whereby audiences – or more specifically the attentive capacities of audiences – are sold to advertisers.
    • 3.4: The Propaganda Model
      The mass media serve as a system for communicating messages and symbols to the general populace. It is their function to amuse, entertain, and inform, and to inculcate individuals with the values, beliefs, and codes of behaviour that will integrate them into the institutional structures of the larger society. In a world of concentrated wealth and major conflicts of class interest, to fulfil this role requires systematic propaganda. - Chomsky and Herman 1988:1
    • 3.5: Political Economies of Digital media
      PE led approaches to the study of digital media again fall into several distinct areas which approach the production of digital media from disparate areas. While Marxist approaches are again often central, there exist an additional series of approaches which consider the ways in which production of digital media, and of digital commodities in general depart in certain respects from other modes of information access and distribution.
    • 3.6: Commons and P2P Production
      This post outlines several modes of commons – types of asset which are held in collective or communal ownership rather than as private commodities owned by individuals or individual corporations.
    • 3.7: Political Ecologies of Media
      Considering issues which arise from the design, production and sustainability of hardware systems has traditionally been considered outside the bounds of media studies as a discipline, which situated within the humanities has been focussed upon the cultural impacts of symbols and messages, rather than exploring the ethics of mining the metals and minerals needed to make cameras and computers, tablets and telephones.
    • 3.8: Technologies
      One of the features which distinguish media from other types of communication, is that processes of mediation necessarily involve some form of technology. Media technologies take many forms, ranging from the technological apparatus of a pen and paper, through printing presses, film, video, radio, television to digital technologies associated with the Internet. In each case, the technologies which are used involve a complex network of elements.
    • 3.9: Technology and Agency
      One of the questions which has been debated within media studies since the 1960’s is the extent to which we can understand technology to be something which determines society, or whether technologies are themselves socially determined. Two important theorists who are often used to exemplify both ends of this spectrum are Marshall McLuhan and Raymond Williams.
    • 3.10: Technology and the Body
    • 3.11: Technology, Time, and Space
    • 3.12: Technology and Politics
    • 3.13: Globalization and Convergence
    • 3.14: Convergence
      Convergence is understood as the “flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behaviour of media audiences who will go almost anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experiences they want.” (Jenkins, 2006)

    This page titled 3: Production and Structures is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Media Hack Team (Creative Commons) .

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