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1.8: Professional Resources and Organizations

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    64579
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    Introduction

    What is the problem at hand? In the context of this course, the “problem” is to determine “evidence-based professional practice for infant and toddler education and care. More specifically you will create a list of resources to answer one of the course essential questions:

    1. How do relationships influence infant and toddler development and learning? Why are interactions essential?
    2. What is the “curriculum” for infants and toddlers?
    3. How should families be engaged as collaborative partners”? Why is it essential to engage families in developing and implementing individualized curriculum for infants and toddlers? How is this achieved?

    What is and why should I use research?

    NAEYC provides guidelines or using Early Childhood Research to support your teaching practice. Research provides information to make decisions on behalf of young children and families. So, consumers of research must be well-informed. NAEYC suggests using peer reviewed research to:

    • Answer an important question that can be investigated through experiences.
    • Build on relevant theory and previous research, as seen in detailed references to others’ work.
    • Present an independent, balanced, and objective approach.
    • Evaluate alternative explanations for the findings.

    Online Guidelines and Resources are available to help early childhood professionals become well-informed consumers of research. Explore how to assess research quality and use research for decision making.

    Ethical Standards for Research are critically important when conducting research with young children and other vulnerable populations. Resource links provide information about:

    • Research procedures must never harm children, physically or psychologically.
    • Children and their families have the right to full information about the research in which they may participate, including possible risks and benefits. Their decision to participate must be based on what is called “informed consent.”
    • All those who receive federal funds for research must use specific informed consent procedures with research participants.
    • Children’s questions about the research should be answered in ways children can understand.
    • Children and their families have the right to refuse to participate in research or to withdraw from participating at any time.
    • Information obtained through research with children should remain confidential. Researchers should not disclose personal information or the identity of participants in written or oral reports and discussions.

    primary source is a report of an original research study. A primary source usually provides enough details to replicate the research study. Primary sources are written by the researcher(s) or evaluator(s) who conducted the study. The main formats of primary sources are journal articles, technical reports from research institutions or education organizations, and reports on presentations at conferences.

    secondary source is a description and summary of one or more prior research studies. Secondary sources usually do not include enough details to replicate the original studies being described. Examples of secondary sources are literature reviews and books. Although newspaper articles also can be secondary sources, they often do not have enough information to help readers form a solid judgment about the research. Essays by education experts can be secondary sources of education research, but essays can be overly biased toward the views of the writer.

    Finding Education Research

    NAEYC’s Office of Applied Research bridges the gap between early childhood research and practice. You can access to high-quality research in order to ensure the practices you use in the classroom are best for the children and families you serve. At this website you can access early childhood research.

    Below is a list of additional websites to use when searching for information.
    THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)

    www.eric.ed.gov. The following terms will produce search results:

    • Infant Behavior
    • Infant Care
    • Infant Mortality
    • Infants
    • Premature Infants
    • Young Children
    • Toddlers
    • Developmentally Appropriate Practices
    • Early Childhood Education
    • Early Experience
    BRIDGEWATER STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

    ERIC, Education Research Complete, Academic Search Premier, PsychInfo, and many others.

    SEARCHING THE WORLD WIDE WEB

    RETAINING, ORGANIZING, STORING, AND REUSING RESOURCES

    [1] explains social bookmarking as the recording and saving of content for later use and quick access. It is a “collaborative and collective saving and sharing of web content”. (¶1)

    • ANYONE can publish on the Internet! Can you distinguish between a 7th grader and Johns Hopkins University?
    • For any source, The University of California Berkeley Library site suggests considering:
      1. Authority – Who is the author? What is their point of view?
      2. Purpose – Why was the source created? Who is the intended audience?
      3. Publication & format – Where was it published? In what medium?
      4. Relevance – How is it relevant to your research? What is its scope?
      5. Date of publication – When was it written? Has it been updated?
      6. Documentation – Did they cite their sources? Who did they cite?

    Student Additions to the Chapter

    Local resources to support children and families of infants and toddlers

    Healthy Families. (2017). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://www.kdc.org/services/healthy-families/

    30 Ansel Hallet Rd, West Yarmouth, MA 02673 (508) 385-6019

    The Kennedy Donovan Center (KDC) has a family support center in West Yarmouth on Cape Cod which offers an array of services for families. The Family Support Center is an important resource for families of people with disabilities. The center offers six specific service options:

    1. Information and referral
    2. Service navigation
    3. Family trainings
    4. Parent networking
    5. Community connection and resources
    6. Administration of flexible funding

    Submitted by Megan McManus, October, 2017.

    Family Resource Center Cape Cod[Pamphlet]. (2017). MA: Cape cod neighborhood Support Coalilition. 29 Bassett Lane • Hyannis, MA 02601 • 508-815-5100 Retrieved from capecodfamilyresourcecenter.org

    This is a free monthly newsletter for families. The newsletter gives them list of activities that are going on in the month that they might find fun and provide support for the families who may be able to meet other families and connect with them. For families with infants and toddlers the music and movement activity is most relevant.

    Some of the activities are free and some have a fee attached to them. The whole family is invited to every event some are geared towards mom’s or dads or both but the child is always allowed to come. This is a great way to meet people in your community with common interests. Submitted by Megan McManus, October, 2017.

    McLeod, C. (n.d.). Health Insurance . Retrieved October 23, 2017, from http://www.falmouthservicecenter.org/health-insurance.html

    Falmouth Service Center is a wonderful place. They help in all kinds of ways. They have free meals twice a month. The food pantry services the people of Falmouth. However, every town has a food pantry that people can go to for food help. The center also helps people with financial assistance by helping to pay bills such as heating or rent.

    Falmouth Service Center helps with health insurance too. They will help you choose the right plan for your family. “Children can get MassHealth even if their parents do not have social security numbers or a green card. Your premium costs are based on your income and the health plan you choose”. Their mission is “to ease stress, reduce hunger and improve the quality of life for our neighbors in need”. The address for the Falmouth Service Center is 611 Gifford Street, Falmouth, MA 02540. The telephone number is 508-548-2794. Submitted by Samantha Para, October, 2017.

    Justice Resource Institute. (2017). JRI Leaders in social justice. Retrieved October 21, 2017, from https://jri.org/

    For services on Cape Cod Contact:
    Amy Sypher, MA Program Development Specialist
    35 Summer Street
    Taunton, MA 02780

    Justice Resource Institute (JRI) is an organization meeting the needs of underserved individuals, and families since 1973. Cape Cod Child Development (CCCD) has had JRI come out and look at children who seem to need their support. They have locations in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. They meet the needs of; developmentally delayed individuals living with mental illness and behavioral challenges, court-involved children and adolescents; LBGT, and children and adults who have experienced trauma. JRI also provides home-based counseling and trauma-informed care. JRI provides many services for children and their families such as, foster care services, adoption supports, and healthy after-school supports. They provide families with environments of safety and care.

    JRI came to a training at our program to talk briefly about what they do. They provide and support families with all diverse types of situations. They help everyone as much as they can. Their main site is in Needham Massachusetts. They will provide services for as long as you need it, and the services that they do provide could be long-term or short-term. JRI does not just work with certain people and families, they work with everyone and anyone who needs their help. Submitted by Danielle Faria, October, 2017

    Erikson Institute. (n.d.). Fussy Baby Network. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://www.erikson.edu/fussybaby/services/

    Phone number for anytime advice: 1-888-431-BABY
    Boston Medical Center: (617) 414-4767

    Address: One Boston Medical Center Pl, Boston, MA 02118

    The Fussy Baby Network and Erikson Institute are in Chicago and were started in 2003. It’s a program that helps families who are struggling with the first year of the baby’s’ life. This can include support for feeding, sleeping, and crying. The approach is called FAN which is Facilitating Attuned Interactions which focuses on families concerns about their child. A family wants someone to listen and to find support. You can call Monday through Friday 9 am to 5 pm. There is no charge for calling.

    Fussy Baby Network services are integrated into the Healthy Steps program at Boston Medical Center. Services include phone consultation, clinic consultation, and home visitation through the primary care clinic for families. See the contact information above.

    Fussy Baby Network FAN is infused into several key programs within the Jewish Family & Children’s Service Center for Early Relationship Support (CERS). For more information call (781) 693-5652 or visit the Jewish Family & Children’s Service website. Submitted by Morgan Evans, October, 2017

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    Information about developmental milestones

    Massachusetts Department of Early Education and Care. (2010, November). Massachusetts early learning guidelines for infants and toddlers. Boston, MA: Author

    This is a tool that teachers as well as families can access. The learning standards offer a breakdown of what the early milestones are for children birth to 33 months of age. They have a break down into areas of development and what the child should be doing by certain ages.

    This is nice for teachers to use to gage where a child should be and what they can do to help this child. There are suggestions in each area for activities to try with the child. Submitted by Megan McManus, October, 2017.

    Teaching Strategies, Inc. (2016). GOLD®. Bethesda, MD: Teaching Strategies.GOLD®. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://teachingstrategies.com/solutions/assess/gold/

    “The authentic, ongoing, observation-based assessment system that helps teachers and administrators like you focus on what matters most for children’s success. Grounded in our 38 research-based objectives for development and learning, GOLD® supports effective teaching and assessment, while providing you with more time to spend with the children in your program. Accessed through MyTeachingStrategies™, GOLD® automatically links teaching and assessment, making it easier to connect the dots across the most important aspects of high-quality early childhood education.”

    This is a company that provides teachers with assessment tools that may be used in a toddler or preschool classroom to assess if a child is meeting their milestones. This comes as a packet that may download or receive in the mail. Teachers can use this to create a profile for each child and answer the questions that are in the assessment. These can then be shared with the family as well. These can be used in parent teacher meeting to show where the child stands in the milestones. Submitted by Megan McManus, October, 2017.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). Developmental Milestones. Retrieved October 23, 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index.html

    Developmental milestones happen as a child grows and include walking, talking and even smiling. The Centers for Disease Control has tools to help families know what to look for at each stage of life. The website also has categories for example, social and emotional, and language/communication and examples to know what to look for.

    If you are concerned about your child, the Center for Disease Control has a page of tips you can do to help your child, whether it’s asking for a referral or getting an evaluation. The website also has a way to help the caregiver know what to say when they are asking for help. For example, when you call your child’s doctor’s office, say, “I would like to make an appointment to see the doctor because I am concerned about my child’s development”. Also, “be ready to share your specific concerns about your child when you call. If you wrote down notes about your concerns, keep them. Your notes will be helpful during your visit with the doctor”. Submitted by Samantha Para, October, 2017.

    The Center for Neurological and Neurodevelopmental Health. (2015, January 18). Track your child’s Developmental Milestones.

    This brochure is a visual of the developmental milestones infant-toddlers should reach at certain ages. This tracks infant-toddlers from the ages of 6 months to 4 years. This brochure has just the right amount of information to keep it clear and concise. Different components on the brochure gives you more information on what to expected with each developmental milestone, and the possible delays that come with it. It also gives a few websites, and telephone numbers in case you see any delays in your child’s milestones, and want to contact someone. Also, the websites will allow you to get a little more information regarding exactly what you need.

    The infant and toddler teachers and the families can learn about morediverse ways to work with any delays in meeting developmental milestones. They will mostly get services such as early invention. Having these services will help the families get activities and plans set in place for those children. Submitted by Danielle Faria, October, 2017

    Prath, S. (2016). Red flags for speech-language impairment in bilingual children: Differentiate disability from disorder by understanding common developmental milestones. ASHA Leader, 21(11), 32-33. doi:10.1044/leader.SCM.21112016.32

    Speech development in bilingual children is sometimes over looked. The article starts off with a hypothetical situation where you get an email stating that there is a bilingual student struggling to communicate. Does this child have a speech deficit or is learning a second language causing the difficulties? Well, we shouldn’t be looking at the differences of the languages, but rather what they have in common. A child should be able to reach milestones with at least one language even if it’s their first language isn’t English. If the child is able to reach the milestones in at least one of the languages that they speak they are achieving milestones.

    Milestones include single words, two-word phrases, and vocabulary development. “If we evaluate vocabulary development using the same language between monolingual and bilingual children- Bilingual children might seem like they understand fewer words”. If the child can’t comprehend in one or both of the languages, then a bilingual evaluation should be in place.

    The article has many charts for speech development milestones, speech intelligibility milestones (for family understanding), a chart for school-age children who don’t reach the milestones for language, when to contact Speech and Language Professional’s for evaluation, and typical vocabulary development.

    Speech development in bilingual children is a milestone that is sometimes over looked. The article starts off with a hypothetical situation where you get an email stating that there is a bilingual student struggling to communicate. Does this child have a speech deficit or is learning a second language causing the difficulties? Well, we shouldn’t be looking at the differences of the languages, but rather what they have in common. A child should be able to reach milestones with at least one language even if it’s their first language isn’t English. If the child is able to reach the milestones in at least one of the languages that they speak or even both the child is demonstrating milestones.

    These milestones include single words, two-word phrases, and vocabulary development. “If we evaluate vocabulary development using the same language between monolingual and bilingual children- England to English, bilingual children might seem like they understand fewer words”. If the child can’t in one or both of the languages, then a bilingual evaluation should be in place. Side note, the article depicts many charts one for speech development milestones, speech intelligibility milestones (for parents understanding), and a chart if school-age children don’t reach the following milestones for language, SLP’s should consider evaluation, and typical vocabulary development. Submitted by Morgan Evans, October, 2017

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    Information that promotes physical health and well-being

    Women, Infants, & Children (WIC) Nutrition Program . (2017). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://www.mass.gov/women-infants-c...rition-program

    Main site 1019 Iyanough Road, Hyannis, MA 02601 (508) 771-7896

    Women, Infants, & Children (WIC) is a free nutrition program that aims to keep Massachusetts families healthy. WIC offers food services for families who may need assistance with buying food for their families. They offer service for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children under the age of five.

    If you are pregnant or have a child under 5 years old in your household, the WIC program may be able to provide you with:

    • Free, healthy food
    • Nutrition, breast feeding support and education
    • Referrals for medical and dental care, health insurance,
child care, housing, and fuel assistance

    You must apply and qualify before using their services. You can participate in WIC if you:

    • Live in Massachusetts
    • Have a nutritional need (WIC staff can help you determine this)
    • Are a child under 5, a new mom, or a pregnant or breastfeeding woman
    • Have a family income less than WIC guidelines. You are automatically income eligible for WIC if you currently receive:
      • o MassHealth/Medicaid insurance plans
      • o Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
      • o Transitional Aid to Families with Dependent Children (TAFDC) or cash assistance

    This is a great way for families to buy healthy food options for their children. Submitted by Megan McManus, October, 2017.

    Early Intervention Parent Leadership Project (2013). Basic Information on EI. Retrieved November 1, 2017, from https://eiplp.org/basic-information/

    If you think your child has a development issue, and the child is three or younger then Early Childhood Intervention can help. If your family is eligible for services, the family will be assigned a provider who will work with the family and early intervention team to develop and carry out an individualized service plan that addresses the child’s developmental needs and the family’s priorities. There are many certified community-based programs serving all cities and towns in Massachusetts. “Each Early Intervention program is certified to provide services for a specified group of cities and towns, called a catchment area”. The service is free to families!

    Early Intervention helps the child in the socially and emotionally too. The adults that work with the child create a bond with them. The children know they are safe and a positive relationship can. There are different activities the Early Intervention staff does with the children to help them. For example, simply talking to the child and asking them how they are feeling. Even being silly and making the child laugh is fostering a positive and rewarding relationship. Submitted by Samantha Para, October, 2017.

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    Information that promotes social and emotional health including Promoting positive relationships and reducing child abuse or neglect

    Zero to Three. (2010, February 21). Tips on Helping Your Child Build Relationships. Retrieved October 31, 2017, from https://www.zerotothree.org/resources/227-tips-on-helping-your-child-build-relationships

    Positive relationships to be are extremely important in a child’s life. Having a role model or someone you can look up to is a way to stay safe. Just as stated earlier in this book if the child has an interested and caring person by their side, that child will be resilient.

    There is a list of strategies to help a child build positive relationships. First, allow for unstructured, uninterrupted time with you’re the child each day. Play with your child and be engaging with them. Next is, say things like, “You are using so many beautiful colors to make that drawing” Respect your child’s feelings. Provide opportunities for your child to develop relationships with peers, so they have a lot of practice to understand to take turns, share, problem solve, and feel the joy of friendship. Next limit “Screen Time as it limits the bonding time with the caregiver and experiencing the world. If the child does have screen time, make it beneficial by asking questions about the show. For example, how it made them feel or what was your favorite part. Submitted by Samantha Para, October, 2017.

    Wang, K. (2013, November 08). 8 Important Tips for Working with A Special Needs Child – Friendship Circle – Special Needs Blog. Retrieved November 01, 2017, from http:// www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2012/10/15/8-important-tips-for-working-with-a-special-needs-child/ The population of children with special needs is growing and more adults, teachers, and coaches, might be finding themselves working with children with special needs for the first time. It’s important to build relationships with children. Some people who are working with children with special needs are either professionals or volunteers. Wang offers 8 tips in order to work with children with special needs interact, observe, use common sense, be flexible, be consistent, use visual, auditory or tactile cues, have a plan and backup plan, and be positive.

    To interact, introduce yourself to the child and explain why you are connecting with this child. By observing you are looking out for differences in behavior and how the child communicates. If you are unsure of something, always ask their families. Using common sense, always make sure that the environment that the child is learning in is physically and emotionally safe and comfortable for them. Flexibility means to accommodate for the child; some adults are not willing to accommodate for the child; the key is to have a variety of methods to help the child. Consistency is as seen in a set of rules, make sure that if there is a set of rules, they are consistent to everyone. Visual, auditory or and tactile cues that are helpful to promote a child’s participation. Sometimes you need a plan B if your first plan isn’t working, there’s nothing wrong with that, but make sure there is a space for the child to calm down if they react in a way that they don’t like. Most importantly be positive, a positive attitude can really contribute to a child’s confidence.

    The population of children with special needs is growing and with that, more and more adults, teachers, and coaches, might be finding themselves working with these children for their very first time. It’s important to build relationships with these children. Some people who are working with these children are either professionals or they are volunteers. Wang talks about 8 tips in order to work with children with special needs. These 8 tips are to interact, observe, use common sense, be flexible, be consistent, use visual, auditory or tactile cues, have a plan and backup plan, and be positive.

    To interact, means you introduce yourself to the child and explain why you are connecting with this child. By observing you are looking out for differences in behavior and how the child communicates with you. If you are unsure of something, always ask their parents. When using common sense, always use safety first, make sure that the environment that the child is learning in is physically and emotionally comfortable for them. Flexibility means to accommodate for the child. Wang stats that some adults are not willing to accommodate for the child, the key is to have a variety of methods to help the child. Consistency is important for set of rules, make sure that if there is a set of rules, they are consistent to everyone. Visual, auditory or tactile cues are helpful when used in an environment, it can even be the difference between a child’s participation and non-participation (Wang, 2012). Sometimes you need a plan B if your first plan isn’t working, there’s nothing wrong with that, but make sure there is a space for the child to calm down if they react in a way that they don’t like. Most importantly be positive, a positive attitude can really contribute to a child’s confidence. Submitted by Morgan Evans, October, 2017

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    Information that promotes stimulating language and communication

    Mendelsohn, A. L., Brockmeyer, C. A., Dreyer, B. P., Fierman, A. H., Berkule-Silberman, S. B., & Tomopoulos, S. (2010). Do Verbal Interactions with Infants During Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on their Language Development as Toddlers? Infant and Child Development, 19(6), 577-593. doi:10.1002/icd.711

    This article is about how language is effected by media including how much the young child’s language can be affected; as well as later effects on the child. They studied 253 families to see how media impacts language development in their young child. They started at 6 months old and then checked back in around 14 months to see the impacts media had on the child. The findings were that media exposure was associated with reduced language development. However, this was effect was less when families talked to the infant or toddler while the child was viewing. This suggests a potential strategy for reducing negative impacts of media on young children by talking with the child about the media as they watched. Submitted by Megan McManus, October, 2017.

    Zero to Three.(2017, February 25). In How to Support Your Child’s Communication Skill.

    On the website Zero to Three, examples of how to support the language and communication are addressed, through both verbal and nonverbal language. It Support begins with a newborn and a 9-month-old using non-verbal communication such as nuzzling at the mother’s breast or using their hands to get what they need meet, then to a 28-month-olds communicate what she sees by verbal and non-verbal ways (pointing and saying the word “Derl” for squirrel). Finally, to a 3-year-old with complete verbal language telling a story about his preschool.

    The website explains many ways to stimulate infant-toddler language and communication. One way is by responding to their looks, sounds, and gestures. As stated in the website, “when he puts his arms out to you, pick him up, kiss him and use simple words. “You want up”. When he coos, coo back. When he gazes at you, make eye contact and talk with him”. This is saying that all communication is crucial to infant-toddlers, whether it is verbal or non-verbal.

    These quick responses by you tells the child that their language and communication is are essential to you, and this will encourage allow the language and communication of infant-toddlers to be endless and so they will develop their skills quicker. Secondly, is you should always talk and listen to your child. With infant and toddlers giving them the understanding that you are there to listen and talk is important for their development, because they feel like they are being heard, and will talk more. Lastly, is by narrating the daily routines. Infant and toddlers need the words as well as a visual of the word to really connect them together.

    At my center in the infant-toddler room the teachers they go over what they are going to do through the day. They write on a white board and hang it outside the classroom, so when families come and pick up their child they can read the note and know exactly what their child did and learned that day. When the children arrive, the teachers have smiles on their faces and are welcoming. They say hello to the families, and get the children ready for the day. Having some not talking yet they will bang objects on the table, or do a scream or a sound to get attention. Supporting both verbal and non-verbal communication is very important for infant-toddlers. Submitted by Danielle Faria, October, 2017.

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    Information that promotes enhancing cognitive development

    Guyton, G. (2011, September). In Using Toys to Support Infant-Toddler Learning and Development.

    In the journal article, “Using Toys to Support Infant-Toddler Learning and Development” the author describes many different toys and activities that families can use with infant-toddlers to enhance their cognitive development. Cognitive development is how infant-toddlers develop their thinking skills.

    Under the heading, “Homemade toys and readily available materials”, she mentions how many advertisements have lead people to believe that toys are better if they are store-bought or expensive, when really, materials that you have at home are superior. Guyton goes into detail how using homemade materials such as; “fabrics, bottles, cardboard boxes, yard, cooking pans, pine cones”, can be very engaging to infant-toddlers, and is an excellent way to start building relationships between the child and caregiver.

    Hiding a toy under a scarf and playing the peek-a-boo game are ways teachers can enhance the cognitive skill of object permanence. Drumming on pots and pans in front of a child, will allow the child to practice imitation, and think about how to make the same sound you just made. Under the next heading, “Choosing and using toys to support cognitive development” The first object is fabric, and the many ways you can use this material, such as in dramatic play, and pulling it out of a hat. Across from the heading is an example of how a scarf is used to enhance cognitive development. An 8-month-old and a teacher put a scarf over a doll, and asks where the doll is. They lift the scarf and the doll is revealed. This is an example of object permanence. Read the rest of the article to learn about using blocks, puzzles, and rattles.

    Caregivers enhance cognitive development in many ways, the first way is giving the infant-toddlers activities and games that will support and spike the curiosity of the children, such as a mystery bag or creating bubbles. Second, is to ask open-ended questions, and allowing time to the answer those questions. For example, “What do you think will happen if?” or “Can you think of another way to do this?”. Giving children time, and space and a variety of different toys and activities will allow their cognitive development to grow. Submitted by Danielle Faria, October, 2017

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    Information that tells you how to create positive approaches to learning

    Zakrzewski, V. (2013, August 21). How to Create a Positive School Climate.

    This article posted in Greater Good Magazine describes three easy things a teacher can do to make a positive change in the classroom. Zakrzewski describes a positive school environment, assessing the current climate, and working with others to create a shared vision for the school. When children and teachers feel valued and appreciated their classrooms will be more positive.

    This article discusses and gives examples of the three R’s for infant and toddler learning. The first is respect which is “shown when adults treat the young child in ways similar to how they would like to be treated by others” The second is response this is done by observing the children and becoming sensitive to their needs. Reading body language and learning their temperaments is key to their success in school. The third is relationship creating a positive connection with each child; helps encourage a positive school and classroom environment.

    The examples called “Ideas into Practice!” include what the environment looks like, establishing a primary caregiving system, and taking care of yourself. They are ideas they give for how to stay positive as a teacher. They also have some activities for the children. This article is very helpful in setting up a happy positive classroom. Submitted by Megan McManus, October, 2017.

    Gronlund, G. (2013). How to Support Children’s Approaches to Learning? Play with Them!

    Positive approaches to learning is part of successful learning experience. How can we as educators do this, is by play! Young children gain so much by playing. The children explore, learn and play with new things everyday when educators use positive approaches to learning. Simple things such as a toddler stacking rings on the post is problem solving.

    If educators have a positive approach to learning it will help the children in later years in school and life. Families can have a positive approach to learning at home too. They can play with their child, interact with your child, have a conversation, or reading books to their child helps in so many ways. Even cooking together is a positive approach to learning because it helps the child bond with an adult. The child needs to have that bond with a special adult to them. Why? Submitted by Samantha Para, October, 2017.


    The most positive approach to learning is to play with the child. To encourage a toddler to play sit on the floor with the child, bring a basket of toys with you and allow the child to be curious as to what to use. For example, using rattles the child can hear different sounds and with blocks they can stack them and then take their creation down. Problem solving is stimulated with the rings on stacking toys. Ask the child questions as they are playing.

    For example, Gronlund describes a father and son playing. As the son is playing, the Dad says, “I see you are trying to get the last ring on the post, but it just won’t fit” or he asks “Where did the ball go, is it hiding behind the chair”. This type of questioning will encourage perseverance and grab the child’s attention and problem solving. Submitted by Morgan Evans, October, 2017

    Leonard, J. (2017, September 21). Babies Can Learn the Value of Persistence by Watching Grownups Stick with a Challenge. The Conversation.

    In the newspaper; The Conversation, Julia Leonard explains ways to create positive approaches to learning. She illustrates how self-control and persistence increase academic outcomes. She describes an experiment that her and her colleagues did with the infants and toddlers trying to activate a musical toy by hitting the button. The children observed either someone working hard to achieve two different goals, or someone who effortlessly reached each goal. Infants and toddlers who saw the adult persist and succeed, pushed the button about twice as many times as those who saw the adult effortlessly

    Leonard concludes that persistence and positive learning comes from an adult model. Seeing this quality in the adults will allow the child to have a positive approach to learning. One way you can create a positive approach to learning is showing the infants and toddlers a box that will not open on the first try. Modeling persistence is a fantastic way to teach them a positive approach to learning. Submitted by Danielle Faria, October, 2017

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    Reviewing Resources

    Research matters: Moving to evidence based professional practice. Educational Leadership, 63 (6), 87-90. You may find the table below useful when creating your annotations for the resources you will add to this chapter.

    3 Things I discovered from the article and will use in teaching infants and toddlers.
    2 Things I found interesting …
    1 Question I Still Have …

    Research review to add to the ECPK 324 Text

    Research review to add to ECPK 324 Text. This is an opportunity to be a scholar and revise and improve the course text by creating 5 comments using hypothesis.

    Have you signed up for hypothesis? If not go to: https://web.hypothes.is/start/. Create a free account. Now you add Hypothesis to your browser (Chrome, Safari, or Google). You are ready to start annotating or commenting in Chapter 8 of our textbook.

    • Local resources to support children and families of infants and toddlers
    • Information about developmental milestones
    • Information that promotes physical health and well-being
    • Information that promotes social and emotional health (promoting positive relationships and reducing child abuse or neglect)
    • Information that promotes stimulating language and communication
    • Information that promotes enhancing cognitive development
    • Information that tells you how to create positive approaches to learning

    text. Here are examples of APA for a variety of reference types.

    Print

    Book Example: Otto, B. (2010). Language development in early childhood education. (3rd Ed.) Upper Saddler River, NJ: Merrill..

    Journal Article Example: Steiner, Amanda Mossman. 2011. A Strength-Based Approach to Parent Education for Children with Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions13(3):178–90.

    Electronic General formula :

    Title of Page/Document. Retrieved from URL

    Note: The title of the page/document is italicized.
    Note: n.d. indicates that no publication date is available.

    Example: Public Broadcasting Service. (n.d.). Positive ways to talk and listen. Retrieved from www.pbs.org/parents/talkingwi...trategies.html.

    Journal Article – online database: Nilsson, M., Ferholt,B., & Lecusay, R. (2017) The playing-exploring child’: Reconceptualizing the relationship between play and learning in early childhood education. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood. Available at: doi-org.libservprd.bridgew.edu/10.1177/1463949117710800

    Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved from EBSCOHost database

    Web page authored by an organization
    Families and Work Institute (n.d.). Main Points from Mind in the Making. Retrieved from: http://mindinthemaking.org/PDF/mainpoints_mitm_120426.pdf

    Technical Report

    A child becomes a reader. Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy.

    Infant Toddler Guidelines

    Massachusetts early learning guidelines for infants and toddlers. Boston, MA: Author.

    Newspaper articles (online):

    Pamphlet-Brochure

    Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.) [Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author..

    Sample Comments in 2 sections

    Note that they are 1 and NOT the required 2 paragraphs

    • Local resources to support children and families of infants and toddlers

    Kindergarten Registration and Screening

    Kindergarten Registration Forms. Retrieved from:

    http://www.barnstable.k12.ma.us/Page/622

    • Promoting physical health and well-being

    Dental Check-up

    Dental Care. Retrieved from:

    chcofcapecod.org/services_dental_care.html

    Grading Rubric

    Criterion Emerging Understanding Acceptable Target Points
    Variety of resources identified

    MA Core Competency 1.A.2 @ Initial & 8.D.12@Initial

    NAEYC Standard 1b

    Identified less than 3 resources. Some were outdated or no date was indicated. Identified 3-4 resources. Some were outdated or no date was indicated. The student used primarily 2 types of sources (books, journals, or websites). Identifies 5 or more professional resources and organizations to enhance professional development and skills. The information is current (within last 10 years) and a variety of books, journals, and information from appropriate websites were explained. 50
    Annotations

    NAEYC 6d: Integrating knowledgeable, reflective, and critical perspectives on early education

    APA style was not used. Some of the resources are fully cited using APA style. At least 4 of the annotations are 2 paragraphs that summarize the information in the resource. The 5 resources are fully cited using APA style and are complete so that others can find them. All of the annotations are 2 paragraphs that clearly summarize the information in the resource. It is clear how the reader would use the resource to as a research base for developmentally appropriate practice & community resources. 75
    Mechanics Writer makes 3-4 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content. Writer makes 1-2 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content. Writer makes no errors in grammar or spelling that distracts the reader from the content. 25
    Total 150

    References

    10 Excellent Social Bookmarking Tools for Teachers. Retrieved from http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2014/02/10-excellent-social-bookmarking-tools.html.


    1. Kharbach, M. (2014, February). 10 Excellent Social Bookmarking Tools for Teachers. Retrieved from http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2014/02/10-excellent-social-bookmarking-tools.html.

    This page titled 1.8: Professional Resources and Organizations is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Susan Eliason via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform.