Authors: Teacher Education through School based Support (TESS)-India
The content in this chapter is an excerpt from:
OECx:TESS101xEnhancing teacher education through OER: Tess-India. (2015). Week 2, TESS India Key Resources. (CC BY SA)
Using group work (aka Cooperative Learning)
Group work is a systematic, active, pedagogical strategy that encourages small groups of students to work together for the achievement of a common goal. These small groups promote more active and more effective learning through structured activities.
The benefits of group work
Group work can be a very effective way of motivating your students to learn by encouraging them to think, communicate, exchange ideas and thoughts, and make decisions. Your students can both teach and learn from others: a powerful and active form of learning.
Group work is more than students sitting in groups; it involves working on and contributing to a shared learning task with a clear objective. You need to be clear about why you are using group work for learning and know why this is preferable to lecturing, pair work or to students working on their own. Thus, group work has to be well-planned and purposeful.
Planning group work
When and how you use group work will depend on what learning you want to achieve by the end of the lesson. You can include group work at the start, the end or midway through the lesson, but you will need to allow enough time. You will need to think about the task that you want your students to complete and the best way to organize the groups.
As a teacher, you can ensure that group work is successful if you plan in advance:
the goals and expected outcomes of the group activity
the time allocated to the activity, including any feedback or summary task
how to split the groups (how many groups, how many students in each group, criteria for groups)
how to organize the groups (role of different group members, time required, materials, recording and reporting)
how any assessment will be undertaken and recorded (take care to distinguish individual assessments from group assessments)
how you will monitor the groups’ activities
The task that you ask your students to complete depends on what you what them to learn. By taking part in group work, they will learn skills such as listening to each other, explaining their ideas and working cooperatively. However, the main aim is for them to learn something about the subject that you are teaching. Some examples of tasks could include the following:
Presentations: Students work in groups to prepare a presentation for the rest of the class. This works best if each group has a different aspect of the topic, so they are motivated to listen to each other rather than listening to the same topic several times. Be very strict about the time that each group has to present and decide on a set of criteria for a good presentation. Write these on the board before the lesson. Students can the use the criteria to plan their presentation and assess each other’s work. The criteria could include:
Was the presentation clear?
Was the presentation well-structured?
Did I learn something from the presentation?
Did the presentation make me think?
Problem solving: Students work in groups to solve a problem or a series of problems. This could include conducting an experiment in science, solving problems in mathematics, analyzing a story or poem in English, or analyzing evidence in history.
Creating an artifact or product: Students work in groups to develop a story, a piece of drama, a piece of music, a model to explain a concept, a news report on an issue or a poster to summarize information or explain a concept. Giving groups five minutes at the start of a new topic to create a brainstorm or mind map will tell you a great deal about what they already know, and will help you pitch the lesson at an appropriate level.
Differentiated tasks: Group work is an opportunity to allow students of different ages or attainment levels to work together on an appropriate task. Higher attainers can benefit from the opportunity to explain the work, whereas lower attainers may find it easier to ask questions in a group than in a class, and will learn from their classmates.
Discussion: Students consider an issue and come to a conclusion. This may require quite a bit of preparation on your part in order to make sure that the students have enough knowledge to consider different options, but organizing a discussion or debate can be very rewarding for both you and them.
Groups of four to eight are ideal, but this will depend on the size of your class, the physical environment and furniture, and the attainment and age range of your class. Ideally, everyone in a group needs to see each other, talk without shouting and contribute to the group’s outcome.
Decide how and why you will divide students into groups; for example, you may divide groups by friendship, interest or by similar or mixed attainment. Experiment with different ways and review what works best with each class.
Plan any roles you will give to group members (for example, note taker, spokesperson, timekeeper or collector of equipment), and how you will make this clear.
Managing group work
You can set up routines and rules to manage good group work. When you use group work regularly, students will know what you expect and find it enjoyable. Initially, it is a good idea to work with your class to identify the benefits of working together in teams and groups. You should discuss what makes good group work behavior and possibly generate a list of ‘rules’ that might be displayed; for example, ‘Respect for each other’, ‘Listening’, ‘Helping each other’, ‘Trying more than one idea’, etc.
It is important to give clear verbal instructions about the group work that can also be written on the blackboard for reference. You need to:
Direct your students to the groups they will work on according to your plan, perhaps designating areas in the classroom where they will work or giving instructions about moving any furniture or school bags
Be very clear about the task and write it on the board in short instructions or pictures. Allow your students to ask questions before you start.
During the lesson, move around to observe and check how the groups are doing. Offer advice where needed if they are deviating from the task or getting stuck.
You might want to change the groups during the task. Here are two techniques to try when you are feeling confident about group work – they are particularly helpful when managing a large class:
‘Expert groups’: Give each group a different task, such as researching one way of generating electricity or developing a character for a drama. After a suitable time, re-organize the groups so that each new group is made up of one ‘expert’ from all the original groups. Then give them a task that involves collating knowledge from all the experts, such as deciding on what sort of power station to build or preparing a piece of drama.
‘Envoys’: If the task involves creating something or solving a problem, after a while, ask each group to send an envoy to another group. They could compare ideas or solutions to the problem and then report back to their own group. In this way, groups can learn from each other.
At the end of the task, summarize what has been learned and correct any misunderstandings that you have seen. You may want to hear feedback from each group, or ask just one or two groups who you think have some good ideas. Keep students’ reporting brief and encourage them to offer feedback on work from other groups by identifying what has been done well, what was interesting and what might be developed further.
Even if you want to adopt group work in your classroom, you may at times find it difficult to organize because some students:
are resistant to active learning and do not engage
do not participate due to poor interpersonal skills or lack of confidence
To become effective at managing group work it is important to reflect on all the above points, in addition to considering how far the learning outcomes were met and how well your students responded (did they all benefit?). Consider and carefully plan any adjustments you might make to the group task, resources, timings or composition of the groups.
Research suggests that learning in groups need not be used all the time to have positive effects on student achievement, so you should not feel obliged to use it in every lesson. You might want to consider using group work as a supplemental technique, for example, as a break between a topic change or a jump-start for class discussion. It can also be used as an ice-breaker or to introduce experiential learning activities and problem-solving exercises into the classroom, or to review topics.