Skip to main content
Social Sci LibreTexts

6.1: Prelude

  • Page ID
    57854
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    ( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    A big challenge when teaching students with disabilities (SWD) within general education placements is providing evidence-based instruction with fidelity and the dosage needed to “move the needle” on academic performance (Fuchs, Fuchs, & Stecker, 2010). Two key barriers preventing successful student outcomes that reside beyond individual student control are (a) the purpose of content-area classrooms at the upper elementary, middle, and high school levels, and (b) how instruction is delivered within these settings (McKenzie, 2009). General-education teachers in the content areas are often underprepared for the challenges associated with teaching SWD (Brownell, Sindelar, Kiely, & Danielson, 2010; Mastropieri et al., 2005). Reasons include limited coursework on serving SWD during teacher-preparation programs, minimum support from the school district in terms of professional development, and frequently, lack of content knowledge sufficient to adequately support students’ learning needs in specific content areas among special educators who may be functioning in co-teaching roles (Kennedy & Ihle, 2012). In addition, teachers are largely required to adhere closely to state- or district-provided pacing guides intended to prepare students for high-stakes assessments that determine school, teacher, and student accountability. Thus, pressures from various sources compel teachers to move quickly through content without regard for the extent to which students are mastering it (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2015). The resulting mismatch between SWD needs and the delivery of content (and its associated demands) is well documented in terms of their struggles with various assessments and post-school outcomes (see Smith, Manuel, & Stokes, 2012).